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Full text of "The chronicles of Greenford Parva; or, Perivale, past and present. With divers historical, archæological, and other notes, traditions, etc., relating to the church and manor, and the Brent Valley"

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JNO.   ALLEN    BROWN,  F.G.S.,  F.R.G.S.,  &c, 


WLify  JpuII=page  arrtr  otfjer  Illustrations  antf  ©Itf  jfttap. 

"  Out  of  monuments,  names,  words,  proverbs,  traditions,  private  records,  and  evidences  ; 
fragments  of  stories,  passages  of  books,  and  the  like,  we  do  save  and  recover  somewhat 
from  the  deluge  of  time." 

(Bacon  on  the  Advancement  of  Learning.) 

Printed  and  Published  for  the  Author  by 

J.  S.  VIRTUE  &  CO.,  Limited, 
26,    IVY    LANE,    PATERNOSTER    ROW,    LONDON. 

[All  rights  reserved.'] 




Is  BrtricatrtJ 











Church,  Farmhouses,  etc.,  Peri  vale    ....         Frontispiece 

Perivale  Church  and  Rectory To  face  56 

The  old  Chancel  Window,  etc.,  Perivale  Church,  a.d.  1803         ,,  60 

Perivale  Church  and  part  of  the  Old  Manor  House  about  a.d.  1790  64 

Early  English  Doorway  and  Stoup  in  Perivale  Church         .         .  65 
Stained  Glass  Window,  lately  in  Perivale  Church         .         .         .67 

The  Lepers'  Window,  Perivale  Church 71 

The  Arms  of  Millet 73 

A  Flood  at  Perivale  » To  face  75 

Brasses  of  Henry  Myllet  and  his  Family,  a.d.  1500        .            „  78 

Brass  of  George  Millet,  a.d.  1600 81 

"  The  Maiden's  Tomb,"  Perivale  Churchyard  .         .        .        To  face  82 

Portion  of  Rocque's  Map,  showing  Perivale,   1741  .         .             ,,  91 

The  Old  Manor  House,  Perivale       .         .         .         .         .            ,,  94 

Grange  Farm 98 


A  certain  philosopher,  more  sensitive  than  a  philosopher  should 
be,  was  accustomed  when  he  came  in  contact  with  phases  and 
experiences  of  human  life  which  caused  him  pain,  to  take  refuge  in 
his  library — like  the  wise  snail  which,  when  rudely  touched,  retreats 
into  its  shell ;  and  from  his  books,  his  silent  friends,  he  learnt  to 
appreciate  the  better  part  of  humanity,  and  became  more  disposed  to 
regard  with  indifference,  if  not  with  satisfaction,  the  parts  sometimes 
played  by  the  poor  player — 

' '  That  struts  and  frets  his  hour  upon  the  stage, 
And  then  is  heard  no  more." 

In  following  his  example,  after  a  similar  experience,  I  have  enjoyed 
the  same  advantages,  and  at  intervals  of  harder  study  have  found  time 
to  write,  not  unmixed  with  pleasure  withal,  this  little  book,  chiefly, 
though  not  exclusively,  for  the  information  of  my  friends  at  Ealing 
and  in  the  neighbouring  towns. 

This  account  of  the  church  and  hamlet  of  Perivale  affords  an 
example  of  what  may  be  done,  though  by  abler  hands  than  mine,  in 
the  case  of  many  old  villages,  in  Middlesex  and  elsewhere,  which  have 
an  interesting  history  buried  beneath  piles  of  old  books  and  records. 

If  I  have  rescued  Perivale  from  comparative  oblivion,  and  if  this 
little  book  should  prove  interesting  to  the  general  reader,  my  object 
will  have  been  achieved. 


I  have  to  acknowledge,  and  I  do  so  most  thankfully,  my  obligations 
to  the  Rector  of  Perivale,  the  Rev.  Dr.  C.  J.  Hughes,  for  allowing  me 
to  examine  the  records  of  his  church,  and  for  much  information 
relating  thereto. 

I  have  to  thank  also  Mrs.  Farthing  for  kindly  placing  in  my  hands 
her  late  husband's  MSS.  notes  and  sketches,  entitled,  "  Pictures  of 
Perivale."  I  have  availed  myself  of  this  source  of  valuable  informa- 
tion, and  largely  quoted  from  them  in  some  of  the  last  chapters  of 
this  book. 

An  acknowledgment  is  due  to  my  friend,  Mr.  Peter  Crooke,  of 
Brentford,  for  furnishing  me  with  some  interesting  notes  on  the  birds 
which  frequent  the  Brent  valley  ;  in  connection  with  which  I  may  also 
mention  the  use  I  have  made  of  the  list  of  birds  published  in  the 
"Proceedings  of  the  Ealing  Natural  History  and  Microscopical  Society," 
compiled  by  Mr.  Anthony  Belt,  its  honorary  secretary.     And  now — 

"  Go,  little  book,  from  this  my  solitude  : 
I  cast  thee  on  the  waters — go  thy  ways ; 
And  if  thou  art,  as  some  may  deem  thee,  g*ood, 
The  world  shall  find  thee  after  many  days." 

Jno.  Allen  Brown. 

7,  Kent  Gardens,  Ealing. 





' '  The  stream,  slow  winding  through  a  level  plain 
Of  spacious  meads,  with  cattle  sprinkled  o'er, 
Conducts  the  eye  along  its  sinuous  course 
Delighted." — Cowper. 

The  geology  of  a  country  determines  its  physical  geography,  and  its 
physical  geography  has  often  been  the  most  important  factor  in 
settling  the  character  and  influence,  and  even  the  very  existence,  of 
a  nation ;  the  possession  of  a  rugged  seaboard  and  of  rivers,  the 
environment  of  mountains,  have  not  only  powerfully  affected  the  pro- 
gress of  peoples,  but  have  actually  preserved  to  us  the  past  history 
of  races. 

Would  the  Greeks  have  so  strongly  infused  their  heroic  history  into 
the  modern  thought  of  the  world  if  Attica  and  Sparta  had  formed 
part  of  a  great  inland  plain  ?  would  they  have  had  a  heroic  history 
at  all,  in  which  Art  and  Scientific  culture  are  so  singularly  embedded, 
for  but  the  physiography  of  the  Peloponessus  ? 

'  Sparta  boasted  that  she  needed  no  walls,  for  the  chain  of  eminences 
which  surrounded  her  were  then  impregnable ;  the  Swiss  preserved 
their  independence,  and,  to  a  large  extent,  the  peace  of  their  valleys, 
by  the  aid  of  the  mountains  which  environ  them  ;  the  Basques,  a  race 
more  ancient  than  the  Aryan  conqueror  who  drove  their  ancestors 
from  other  parts  of  Europe  many  thousand  years  ago,  have  preserved 
their  racial  characteristics,  their  language  and  folk-lore,  in  the  valleys 
of  the  Pyrenees,  protected  and  isolated  by  the  rugged  mountains 
which  encompass  them,  while  their  congeners  became  absorbed  by  the 



Kelt,  Roman,  and  Teuton  :  a  survival  which,  with  others  of  the  like 
kind,  is  of  great  interest  and  importance  to  the  student  of  Prehistoric 

Let  us  recognise,  too,  when  we  contemplate  the  supremacy  of  the 
mixed  Anglo-Saxon  and  Keltic  races,  which  have  been  long  welded 
together  in  Britain,  that  the  energy  and  enterprise  on  which  we  justi- 
fiably pride  ourselves,  is  in  no  small  degree  due  to  the  later  geological 
effects,  which  have,  conjointly  with  still  older  changes,  produced  the 
present  mountains,  valleys,  and  rivers,  and  let  us  be  grateful  for  "  the 
last  period  of  partial  submergence"  in  Western  Europe,  by  which  we 
"  were  encompassed  by  the  inviolable  sea." 

The  same  causes  which  have  operated  in  producing  great  results 
are  also  potent  in  producing  lesser  ones.  It  is  a  great  leap  in  thought 
from  a  sun  to  an  asteroid,  from  an  elephant  to  a  grasshopper,  yet  it 
is  to  the  like  interweaving  of  causes  and  effects  that  the  existence  of 
both  is  due. 

We  owe  the  preservation  of  Peri  vale,  an  old  almost  forgotten  hamlet, 
to  its  geographical  position.  Situated  just  outside  the  valley  of  the 
Thames  proper,  it  is  cut  off,  and  in  a  measure  isolated,  by  the  River 
Brent  and  the  ridge  of  low  hills  which  divide  it  from  its  ambitious 
neighbour,  Ealing ;  and  it  is  largely  due  to  these  natural  barriers  that 
it  still  remains  a  rustic,  deeply-secluded  hamlet,  with  a  quaint  old 
church,  an  old  rectory,  and  a  few  red-tiled  farmhouses,  toned  down 
into  unison  with  the  hedgerows  and  trees,  the  survival  of  a  mediaeval 
village  but  eleven  miles  from  St.  Paul's. 

Districts  within  the  same  distance  of  London  have  yielded  in  suc- 
cession to  the  great  army  of  the  builder ;  he  has  conquered  and 
annexed  that  which  was  open  country  in  the  boyhood  of  the  man  of 
fifty  summers.  Where  are  the  country  roads  he  knew,  the  smiling 
expanses  of  green  interspersed  with  trees  ?  the  hedgerows  redolent 
with  the  perfume  of  the  wild  honeysuckle,  and  decked  with  prim- 
roses, violets,  and  wild  roses  ?     What  has  become  of  the  brooks, 

.     .     .     .  "  The  complaining  brooks, 
That  make  the  meadows  green  "  ? 

They  have  been  converted  into  sewers.  The  beautiful  old  trees,  that  took 
so  long  to  grow  their  outstretched  leafy  arms  and  wide  trunks,  have 
been  cut  down  and  uprooted  to  subserve  his  fell  purpose  ;  all  that  is 


rural  has  disappeared  before  the  ubiquitous  builder  of  the  trowel, 
hammer,  and  saw,  and  the  great  city,  or  congeries  of  cities,  now 
stretches  itself  forth  in  new  local  board  districts  with  bewildering 
lines  of  houses  and  rows  of  "  eligible  villas,"  and  other  examples  of 
"original"  suburban  architecture. 

In  almost  every  direction  in  which  he  may  wander  in  his  desire  to 
revisit  the  scenes  of  his  youthful  walks  and  rambles,  he  will  find  all 
changed  ;  even  the  haunts  of  his  early  manhood  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  London,  in  spring  and  summer,  are  so  altered  that  he  knows  them 
no  more  ;  they  bring,  like  the  memory  of  dear  vanished  faces,  but  the 
saddened  thought  that  "  such  things  were  but  are  not." 

It  is  the  Brent  valley  which  has  preserved  Perivale  to  us,  and  long 
may  it  guard  the  northern  environs  of  Ealing  from  the  ruthless 
destroyer  of  the  rural  aspect  of  the  environs  of  London. 

The  River  Brent,  like  a  long,  thin,  shining  snake,  flows  in  many 
bends  and  curves  through  the  rich  flowery  pastures  of  the  wide  flat 
valley.  Such  a  little  stream,  gliding  generally  so  smoothly  among  the 
trees,  flowers,  and  grass,  seems  at  first  sight,  even  with  the  hills  it  has 
helped  to  form,  hardly  sufficient  to  make  a  barrier  between  the  hamlet 
and  the  latest  acquisition  of  the  land  speculator,  Ealing.  But  those 
who  see  the  little  Brent  peacefully  meandering  through  the  meadows 
from  Kingsbury  to  Greenford,  would  never  dream  of  what  it  becomes 
when  in  a  state  of  flood.  A  few  days'  steady  rain  is  often  enough  to 
rouse  the  potential  energy  of  "our  river,"  and  to  transform  it  from  a 
rivulet  with  a  murmuring  ripple  to  a  wide  roaring  river,  flowing  with 
a  torrent  sufficient  to  carry  down  trees  and  occasionally  sweep  away 
the  smaller  bridges,  besides  inundating  the  fields  and  rendering  them 
quite  impassable  for  a  long  distance  on  each  side  of  the  old  banks  ; 
then  men  and  horses  have  been  drowned  in  it,  and  the  waters  are 
expanded  for  miles  along  the  valley. 

The  church  and  hamlet  have  a  most  picturesque  old-world  appear- 
ance, whether  they  be  approached  from  the  Greenford  Road  or  as 
seen  across  the  fields  from  Ealing. 

Embosomed  in  trees,  the  former,  with  its  wooden  tower,  tiny  porch, 
and  red-tiled  roof,  probably  presents  much  the  same  rustic  mediaeval 
aspect  it  has  exhibited  during  the  past  three  hundred  years,  while  a 
,J  b  2 


roof  or  gable  of  one  or  two  of  the  farm  houses  and  the  old  rectory 
may  be  seen  peeping  out  from  the  trees  and  seem  quite  in  harmony 
with  it. 

The  whole  landscape,  with  Horsington,  or  more  correctly  Horsendon, 
in  the  background,  and  Harrow  Hill  with  its  spire  still  further  in  the 
distance,  reminds  one  of  some  out-of-the-way  hamlet  in  one  of  the 
more  distant  counties,  which,  for  lack  of  a  means  of  communication, 
has  remained  as  it  was  in  the  old  days  until  it  is  well-nigh  forgotten. 

As  the  church  with  "  God's  acre  "  attached  to  it  is  more  nearly 
approached,  it  seems  the  very  ideal  and  embodiment  of  peace  and 
tranquillity.  In  summer  the  sound  of  the  wind  among  the  old  yews 
and  other  trees  in  the  churchyard  and  around  the  church  and  rectory 
reaches  the  ear  subdued  and  softened,  as  if  in  unison  with  the  peace 
of  the  landscape  and  the  calm  rest  of  those  who  lie  within  the 
church's  shade. 

In  summer  the  yellowhammer  repeats  his  plaintive  cry,  the  tits 
and  others  of  the  feathered  tribe  their  tiny  notes,  the  thrushes  are  in 
full  song,  the  swallows  are  flying  about  the  eaves  of  the  roof,  and  the 
general  chorus  of  songsters  and  warblers,  accompanied  by  the  mur- 
murous melody  of  the  river  hard  by,  is  borne  on  the  ear  mingled  with 
the  busy  hum  of  insect  life — telling,  it  is  true,  of  activity,  but  it  is 
an  activity  in  repose,  if  the  expression  be  allowed,  like  the  healthful 
balmy  repose  of  the  wearied  after  labour,  in  which  happy  thoughts 
unwittingly  find  expression  in  pleasing  dreams,  not  the  "  cold  abstrac- 
tion "  which  is  not  sleep,  though  for  a  short  while  it  is  its  counterfeit. 

A  sense  of  calm  content  and  reliance  on  the  mysterious  future 
steals  over  us  amid  such  surroundings  as  these,  like  a  beam  of  light 
from  behind  the  dark  curtain,  comforting  and  reassuring,  and  stirring 
an  inner  sense  within  ourselves — for  "  all  of  us  have  an  inner  sense  of 
some  existence  apart  from  the  one  that  wears  away  our  days." 

Byron  says — 

"  Between  two  worlds  life  hovers  like  a  star 
Twixt  night  and  morn  npon  the  horizon's  verge ; 
How  little  do  we  know,  that  which  we  are  ! 
How  less  what  we  may  be  !    the  eternal  surge 
Of  Time  and  Tide  rolls  on,  and  bears  afar 
Our  bubbles." 


' '  Norman  saw  on  English  oak. 
On  English  neck  a  Norman  yoke  ; 
Norman  spoon  in  English  dish, 
And  England  ruled  as  Normans  wish." — Scott. 

The  hamlet  of  Perivale  is  mentioned  in  the  Domesday  Survey  under 
the  name  of  "  Greneforde,"  and  there  is  sufficient  in  the  old  record 
to  distinguish  it  from  the  greater  Greenford  ;  it  is  also  called  "  Grene- 
forde" in  Edward  the  Confessor's  Charter  of  Confirmation,  and  from 
these  early  times  it  has  been  known  as  Greneforde  Parva,  to 
distinguish  it  from  the  adjoining  parish  of  "  Greneford  Magna." 

The  names  of  "  Grenefeld,"  ''  Gernford,"  "  Cornhull,"  or  "Corn- 
hill,"  have  also  been  applied  to  it  in  old  records,  but  in  later  times  it 
has  been  known  as  Peryvale  or  Pure  vale. 

Norden,  who  wrote  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  calls  it  "  Peryvale," 
but  is  of  opinion  that  it  is  more  correctly  written  "  Purevale"  on  account 
of  the  fertility  of  the  valley,  for  he  says  the  whole  district,  including 
"  Northold,"  "  Southhold,"  "  Norcote,"  "  Gerneford,"  &c,  "  yieldeth 
not  only  an  abundance  but  most  excellente  good  wheate."  He 
quaintly  says,  "It  may  be  noted  also  how  nature  hath  exalted  Harrow 
on  the  Hill,  which  seemeth  to  make  ostentation  of  its  situation  in  the 
Purevale,  from  whence,  towards  the  time  of  harvest,  a  man  may  beholde 
the  fields  round  about,  so  sweetely  to  address  themselves  to  the  siccle 
and  sith,  with  such  comfortable  aboundaunce  of  all  kinde  of  graine  that 
the  husbandman  who  waiteth  for  the  fruits  of  his  labours  cannot  but 
clap  his  hands  for  joy  to  see  this  vale  so  to  Laugh  and  Sing."  * 

Newcourt  says,f  "  I  am  apt  to  believe  that  this  parish  has  not  gone 

*  "  Speculum  Britannise  "  (John  Norden),  a  historical,  &c,  description  of  Middlesex  and 
other  counties,  illustrated  with  maps  and  the  arms  of  persons.  This  work,  which  is  of  small 
extent,  contains  much  curious  matter.  It  was  written  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  and 
reprinted  in  1637,  and  again  in  1723. 

t  "  Repertorium  Ecclesiasticum  Parochiale  Londinense,"  Richard  Newcourt,  2  vols., 
fol.,  1708. 


by  the  name  of  Peri  vale  for  many  ages  past,  for  the  first  time  I  find 
it  so  written  in  the  London  Registry,  is  December,  1540." 

Drayton  in  his  "  Polyolbion  "  (see  p.  107),  calls  it  Peryvale,  and 
Lysons  considers  that  this  name  has  arisen  from  the  gradual  corrup- 
tion of  Parva.* 

It  is  worthy  of  observation  that  a  road  called  Perryfield  Lane  is 
shown  in  Rocque's  Map  (1741)  :  it  led  in  a  direct  line  to  Perivale  from 
"  Castle  Bear  Hill,"  through  "  Castle  Bear  Common,"  on  part  of  which 
Kent  Gardens  now  stands,  and  was  a  continuation  of  the  old  road  from 
Ealing's  or  Eling's  Haven.  It  is  very  difficult  to  believe  that  the 
name  arose  from  either  the  corruption  of  "  Pure  "  or  "  Parva." 

The  parish  is  also  distinguished  in  old  records,  which  will  be 
referred  to  later,  as  Cornhull  or  Cornhill ;  this  was  probably  the  name 
applied  to  a  part  of  the  parish,  as  will  be  noticed  subsequently. 

Greenford  Parva,  or  Perivale,  is  in  the  Hundred  of  Elthorne  ;  it  is 
bounded  by  Greenford  (Magna),  Ealing  and  Harrow,  and  is  now  inter- 
sected by  the  Grand  Junction  Canal.  The  hamlet  is  about  a  mile  and 
a  half  from  the  Uxbridge  Road  and  barely  eight  miles  from  the 
Marble  Arch. 

It  is  probable  that  the  stone  which  now  marks  the  boundary  be- 
tween Perivale  and  Ealing  near  the  churchyard  of  the  former,  was  not 
always  necessary  to  define  the  limits  of  the  parishes  in  that  direction 
and  that  the  river  itself  here  formed  the  boundary.  Subsequently, 
as  shown  by  Rocque's  Survey  in  1741-5,  the  bend  of  the  river  was  to 
the  south  more  than  500  feet  away.  The  boundaries  of  most 
of  the  parishes  near  London  are  so  old  that  the  curve  of  the  stream 
may  have  been  again  in  the  same  direction  as  at  present,  but  rather 
further  to  the  north,  when  the  limits  were  fixed.  Camden  says  Eng- 
land was  first  divided  into  parishes  by  Honorius,  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury  in  the  year  636. 

According  to  the  Domesday  Survey, "f  which  was  made  about  twenty 

*  "The  Environs  of  London,"  Rev.  Daniel  Lysons,  1796  ;  supplement  1811.  Parishes 
not  described  in  the  Environs,  1800. 

t  Plantagenet  Harrison  says  that  the  Norman  Conqueror,  "knowing  that  there  were 
many  lands  in  the  country  subject  to  special  tax,  which  constituted  an  important  part  of  the 
revenue  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  king,  and  in  order  that  he  might  not  be  defrauded  by  the 
collectors  of  this  tax,  caused  a  survey  to  be  made  of  these  lands,  then  known  as  '  the 
Lands  of  the  King's  Geld,'  by  commission  appointed  to  each  county,  and  the  result  was 
the  Domesday  Book,  which  is  simply  a  schedule  of  those  lands  of  '  the  King's  Geld,'  and 


years  after  the  Battle  of  Hastings,  Ernulf  held  of  Geoffrey  de  Maune- 
ville  or  Mandeville,  and  sometimes  written  Magnaville,  three  hides  of 
land,  "  which  land  is  one  carucate  and  half  in  Greneforde  "  Parva  ; 
"  there  is  one  plough  there  and  another  half  a  plough  might  be  made  " 
— meaning  that  land  for  one  plough  only  was  under  cultivation,  but 
there  was  sufficient  arable  land  for  half  as  much  again  or  the  half  of 
what  a  plough  could  do. 

At  this  time,  also,  two  villeins  held  half  a  hide  of  the  said 
Geoffrey  de  Mandeville,  and  there  were  also  two  cottars  and  a  slave, 
as  well  as  wood  or  pannage  for  forty  hogs — pannage  being  money 
paid  to  the  King's  "  Agisters  "  for  the  mast  of  the  King's  forests, 
i.e.,  acorns  and  beech  mast  eaten  by  the  swine,  or  profit  arising  to 
the  landowner  from  a  grant  of  liberty  to  pasture  hogs ;  the  time  of 
pannage  began  on  Holyrood  day,  and  ended  forty  days  after  Michael- 
mas. *  We  have  here  an  indication  that  oaks  and  beeches  were  then 
fairly  abundant  in  the  woods  about  Greenford  Parva. 

The  land  is  described  in  the  record  as  having  been  worth  twenty 
shillings,  though  it  was  then  only  considered  of  the  value  of  ten 
shillings.  In  the  time  of  Edward  the  Confessor  its  value  was  forty 

This  estate  had  been  held  by  two  Sokemen  ;  one  of  them  being  a 
canon  of  St.  Paul's,!  who  had  two  hides,  and  who  had  the  power  of 
parting  with  them  at  his  pleasure  ;  the  other  was  a  vassal  of  Ansgar, 

does  not  mention  any  of  the  freeholders  in  their  own  right." — (Facsimile  of  the  original 
Domesday  Book  and  Translation,  1876.) 

*  Nelson's  "Laws  of  England." 

t  Several  canons  of  St.  Paul's  held  land  in  like  manner  in  Middlesex  at  this  time.  Among 
others,  Gueri  had  two  hides  at  Twyf ord.  '  •  From  their  foundation  the  members  of  the 
Chapter  of  St.  Paul's  were  secular  priests,  and  constantly  bore  the  name  of  canons,  or  im- 
properly, prebendaries,  from  the  prebends  or  portions  attached  to  each  stall."  As  Dean 
Milman  says,  St.  Paul's  was  never  a  monastery  like  that  of  St.  Peter's  (Westminster  Abbey) 
although  it  was  surrounded  with  great  monastic  establishments.  "  To  the  Dean  and  Canons 
belonged  in  theory  and  in  form  the  election  of  the  Bishop.  As  the  Pope  or  the  King  were 
in  the  ascendant,  came  the  irresistible  nomination  which  it  would  have  been  perilous  for  the 
Chapter  to  refuse — impossible  to  elude." — (Milman,  "  Annals  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral.") 
The  site  of  St.  Paul's  appears  to  have  been  occupied  by  the  Romans  as  the  great  Praetorian 
camp,  and  a  small  temple  to  Diana  once  existed  at  or  near  it  as  shown  by  the  small  altar 
with  a  figure  of  Diana  in  bas  relief,  with  bow  and  quiver  and  hound  at  her  feet,  discovered 
in  Foster  Lane.  It  is  now  preserved  in  Goldsmith's  Hall.  Probably  "  a  Saxon  fortress 
afterwards  occupied  the  site  of  the  Roman  camp  and  a  rude  Saxon  temple  may  have 
frowned  down  from  the  height  above  the  Thames."  .  .  "Ethelbert  himself ,  King  of 
Kent,  with  the  sanction  of  Sebert,  King  of  the  East  Angles,  founded  and  endowed  a 
magnificent  cathedral,  dedicated  to  St.  Paul." — Circa,  a.d.  597. 


the  Master  of  the  Horse  to  the  Saxon  King,  Edward,  who  could  not 
alienate  it  without  the  licence  of  his  liege  lord. 

It  is  also  stated  in  Domesday  that  iElveve,  who  is  described  as  the 
wife  of  Wateman  of  London,  held  half  a  hide  of  the  King,  being  a 
portion  of  the  lands  set  apart  by  him  to  be  given  in  alms  (see  list  of 
the  principal  landowners  in  Middlesex  after  the  Conquest).  This  land 
is  described  as  for  half  a  plough,  "  but  it  is  not  there  now."*  This 
land,  which  had  belonged  to  Leuric,  a  vassal  of  Earl  Lewin,  who  had 
power  to  sell  it  to  whomsoever  he  pleased,  was  then  of  the  value  of 
ten  shillings,  but  had  been  worth  twenty  shillings  in  the  reign  of  the 

(Earl  Lewin  was  a  powerful  Saxon  lord  in  the  reign  of  Edward  the 
Confessor  ;  he  held  at  that  time  among  his  possessions  the  manor  of 

At  this  time  Ansgot  held  at  Greenford  Parva,  of  Geoffrey  de  Man- 
deville,  half  a  hide,  which  is  further  described  as  "  two  oxgangs,"  or 
land  for  two  oxen  ;  it  is  said  to  have  been  worth  three  shillings, 
which  was  its  value  in  King  Edward's  time.  This  land  had  been  in 
the  tenure  of  Azor,  a  vassal  of  Ansgar,  the  Master  of  the  Horse  before 
mentioned,  and  the  former  could  not  sell  it  without  his  consent. 
Azor  appears  to  have  held  as  much  as  eight  and  a  half  hides  of  land 
at  Bedfont  Manor,  the  Manor  of  Stan  well,  &c,  and  though  a  vassal 
himself,  had  others  under  him  at  West  Bedfont,  Hatton,  Enfield, 
&c,  who  could  not  dispose  of  their  holdings  without  his  leave, 
and  among  them  were  Sokemen.  Azor  is  described  in  another  place 
as  house  servant  to  King  Edward  the  Confessor. 

iElveve  appears  in  the  record  as  holding  other  land  in  Middlesex 
direct  from  the  Norman  king,  as  above  mentioned. 

Ansgar,  the  Haller,  or  Master  of  the  Horse  of  the  Saxon  Edward, 
must  have  espoused  the  cause  of  Harold,  and  suffered  accordingly 
after  his  defeat.  He  was  a  Saxon  thane,  or  noble,  whose  name 
frequently  occurs  in  Domesday.      Besides  his  possessions  at  Greenford 

*  The  principal  landowners  in  Middlesex  at  the  making-  of  the  Domesday  Survey  were 
the  King,  the  Bishop  and  Canons  of  London,  the  Abbeys  of  Westminster  and  Holy  Trinity 
at  Caen,  the  Nunnery  of  Berking,  Earls  Roger  and  Morton,  Geof  rey  de  Mannerville  (Geoffrey 
de  Mandeville),  Ernulf  de  Hesding,  "Walter  Fitz  Other,  Walter  de  St.  Walery,  Richard 
Fitz  Gilbert.  Robert  Gernon,  Robert  Fasiton,  Robert  Fitz  Roselin,  Robert  Blund,  Roger 
de  Rames,  William  Fitz  Ansculf,  Edmund  de  Salisbury,  Aubrey  de  Vere,  Ranulf  Fitz 
Ilger,  Derman,  Countess  Judith,  and  the  Bang's  Almoner. 


Parva,  lie  held  land  at  Ichenham,  and  the  Manors  of  Northolt,  Enfield, 
&c.,  all  of  which  appear  to  have  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  Norman 
noble,  Geoffrey  de  Mandeville. 

The  domains  of  the  Saxon  thanes  who  opposed  the  Conqueror 
rapidly  changed  hands  after  the  battle  of  Hastings,  and  a  little 
later  there  were  many  of  whom  it  might  be  said  in  the  words  of  an 
old  ballad — 

"  His  sire  was  a  Saxon  and  lord  of  the  vale  ; 
But  the  Normans  came  down  with  their  proud  chivalry, 
And  they  robbed  him  and  slew  him,  and  burnt  his  roof  tree." 

It  has  been  said  that  the  Conqueror  "  only  confiscated  the  great 
fiefs  of  the  most  rebellious  of  the  Saxon  nobility,  and  did  not  touch 
the  land  belonging  to  the  tenants  of  the  soil."  Much  of  the  land  in 
Middlesex  must  have  belonged  to  Harold's  adherents  however,  looking 
at  the  changes  which  occurred  in  this  county  after  the  Conquest,  as 
shown  in  Domesday.  On  the  other  hand,  Scott  has  presented  us 
probably  with  a  true  picture  of  the  thanes  who  retained  their  posses- 
sions in  Cedric  of  Rotherwood  and  Athelstane  of  Coningsburgh. 
The  Saxon  account  of  the  compilation  of  Domesday  Book  is  written 
in  "  The  Saxon  Chronicle,"  a  work  compiled  by  a  series  of  authors 
from  the  registers  made  in  the  monasteries,  and  recording  events  from 
the  date  of  Alfred  to  Henry  II.  The  disgust  of  the  Saxon  monks 
at  the  new  order  of  things  is  very  discernible  in  it.  The  "Chronicle" 
is  written  in  Anglo  Saxon,  and  the  reference  to  Domesday  has  been 
thus  translated  : — 

"  Then  in  the  winter  was  the  King  in  Gloucester  with  his  council, 
and  held  there  his  court  for  five  days,  and  afterwards  the  Archbishop 
and  Clergy  had  a  synod  three  days.  Then  was  Mauricius  chosen  Bishop 
of  London,  William  of  Norfolk,  and  Robert  of  Chester  ;  these  were 
all  the  King's  clerks.  After  this  had  the  King  a  large  meeting,  and 
very  deep  speech  held  he  with  his  witan  (council)  about  this  land, 
how  it  was  occupied,  and  by  what  sort  of  men.  Then  he  sent  his  men 
over  all  England,  commissioning  them  to  find  out  'how  many  hundreds 
of  hides  were  in  the  shires,  what  land  the  King  himself  had,  and  what 
stock  upon  the  land,  or  what  dues  he  ought  to  have  by  the  year  from 
the  shires '  ;  also  he  commissioned  them  to  record  in  writing  '  how 
much  land  his  Archbishops  had,  and  his  diocesan  Bishops,  and  his 


Abbots,  and  his  Earls,'  and  though  I  may  be  prolix  and  tedious  (says 
the  Monk  who  writes)  what  or  how  much  each  man  had,  who  was 
an  occupier  of  land  in  England  either  in  land  or  in  stock,  and  how 
much  money  it  was  Avorth  ;  so  very  narrowly,  indeed,  did  he  com- 
mission them  to  trace  it  out,  that  there  was  not  one  single  hide  nor 
a  yard  of  land  (a  quarter  of  an  acre),  nay,  moreover  (it  is  shameful 
to  tell,  though  he  thought  it  no  shame  to  do  it,  says  the  Saxon 
writer),  not  even  an  ox,  nor  a  cow,  nor  a  swine,  was  there  left  that 
was  not  set  down  in  his  writ.  And  all  the  recorded  particulars  were 
afterwards  brought  to  him.  Afterwards  he  moved  about  and  came 
by  Lammas  to  Sarum,  where  he  was  met  by  his  councillors,  and  all 
the  landsmen  that  were  of  any  account  over  all  England  became  this 
man's  vassals,  as  they  were,  and  they  all  bowed  before  him  and  became 
his  men,  and  swore  him  oaths  of  allegiance  that  they  would  against 
all  other  men  be  faithful  to  him."  *  Thus  was  the  feudal  system 
formally  established. 

Geoffrey  de  Mandeville  is  one  of  the  great  historical  figures  at  this 
period,  and  with  him  as  Lord  of  the  Manor  of  Greenford  Parva  the 
destinies  of  our  little  hamlet  are  associated. 

This  powerful  Norman  baron,  sometimes  styled  the  Sire  de  Magna- 
ville,  accompanied  the  Conqueror  to  England  and  rendered  him  great 
aid  at  the  famous  battle  which  decided  the  fate  of  the  Saxon  supremacy. 
He  was  one  of  the  chief  grantees  after  the  Conquest,  and  the  king 
rewarded  him  with  a  large  number  of  knights'  fees,t  castles,  and 
manors  ;  it  is  said  he  held  land  in  ten  different  counties.  He  held 
many  manors  in  Middlesex  ;  among  them  were  those  of  Ebury,  which 
constitutes  now  a  large  part  of  the  west  of  London,  besides  such 
manors  as  Northolt,  Greenford  Parva,  Edmonton,  Stanwell,  Enfield, 
&c,  and  lands  at  Islington  (written  Isendon  and  Isledon,  &c),  Ichen- 

*  See  the  translation  of  "  The  Saxon  Chronicle,"  hy  the  Rev.  J.  Ingram,  1823. 

t  Much  of  the  land  of  the  country  was  divided  into  portions  called  knights'  fees  under 
the  feudal  system,  the  portion  being  considered  sufficient  to  maintain  an  armed  knight  when 
engaged  in  war.  The  feudal  Barons,  who  were  directly  amenable  to  the  King,  held,  as  in  this 
case,  a  large  number  of  knights'  fees,  and  thus  could  bring  into  the  field,  at  his  pleasure,  the 
armed  knights  over  whom  they  were  chief  tenants  or  liege  lords,  while  the  knights  could 
gather  together  to  their  aid  the  retainers  or  vassals  who  held  land  under  them.  A  knight's 
fee,  or  feodum  militare,  was  twelve  plough-lands,  or  carucata  terra,  each  of  which  was  as 
much  as  one  plough  coidd  plough  in  a  year.  The  value  of  a  knight's  fee  is  stated,  in  the 
first  year  of  Edward  II.,  to  be  £20  per  annum. — (Blackstone) . 


ham,  &c.,  in  fact,  most  of  the  land  in  the  hundreds  of  Elthorne  and 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  Manor  of  Greenford  Magna,  con- 
taining twelve  hides,  had  before  this  time,  i.e.,  in  the  reign  of  King 
Ethelred,  probably  the  second,  surnamed  the  Unready  (a.d.  979),  been 
given  by  that  king  to  Westminster  Abbey.  Domesday  says  it  is  held 
by  the  Abbot  of  St.  Peter  for  eleven  and  a  half  hides.*  But  there  is 
evidence  in  the  vicinity  of  Greenford  Parva  of  the  Saxon  occupation  of 
the  country  at  an  earlier  period,  when  the  Saxons  of  this  part  of  Mid- 
dlesex then  formed  a  part  of  East  Seaxe,  and  were  always  more  or  less 
at  war  with  their  powerful  southern  neighbours,  the  tribes  of  West 
Seaxe,  until  they  were  crushed  under  Egbert,  who,  under  the  title  of 
Bretwalda,  became  supreme  ruler  ( a.d.  827).  A  few  years  ago  when 
some  labourers  were  digging  gravel  at  the  neighbouring  district  of 
Hanwell,  they  discovered  the  remains  of  skeletons,  evidently  those  of 
three  or  more  warriors,  as  their  iron  spears  were  found  with  them  ; 
they  had  been  buried  "  with  their  martial  cloaks  around  them,"  i.e., 
with  coarsely-woven  hemp  garments,  fastened  over  the  breast  with 
round  bronze  fibulse  or  brooches.  These  fibuke  were  of  the  saucer 
pattern  'peculiar  to  the  West  Saxons.f  They  were  thickly  plated  with 
gold,  carved  into  very  pretty  characteristic  designs.  The  richness  of 
these  ornaments  indicates  that  the  wearers  had  been  persons  of  some 
note,  probably  leaders  of  a  number  of  West  Saxons  who  fell  in  some 
battle  or  skirmish  while  invading  the  country  of  East  Seaxe,  which 
then  included  not  only  Middlesex  but  part  of  Hertfordshire,  as  well  as 
Essex.  Before  leaving  the  historical  references  to  the  Saxons,  as 
associated  with  Greenford  Parva,  it  would  be  well  to  digress  slightly 
in  order  to  explain  the  nature  and  origin  of  the  ancient  measures  of 
land  which  have  been  mentioned,  and  the  curious  tenures  with  which 
the  terms  are  connected. 

First  as  to  hide.  This  is  the  oldest  term  applied  to  the  measure- 
ment of  land  in  England,  if  we  except  the  Roman  "  ager  "  (field)  from 
which  is  probably  derived  our  word  "acre,"  but  which  does  not  appear 
to  have  denoted  any  particular  dimensions.     At  a  later  period,  i.e.,  in 

*  Dart' 8  "History  of  "Westminster  Abbey,"  vol.  i.,  p.  12. 

t  The  interesting  relics  are  now  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Peter  Crooke,  of  Brentford. 


Edward  I.'s  reign,  the  word  acre  began  to  be  used  to  describe  an  ob- 
long piece  of  ground,  forty  perches  long,  with  a  width  of  four  perches. 

Hide  is  derived  from  the  Anglo-Saxon  "  higid,"  otherwise  "hi wise," 
and  became  abbreviated  into  "  hid."  It  still  survives  as  the  name  of 
villages,  as  "The  Hyde,"  North  Hyde,  &c,  in  Middlesex.  The  word 
is  used  in  the  laws  of  Ina,  one  of  the  early  kings  of  Wessex  (about  a.d. 
620).  According  to  the  "Venerable  Bede,"  a  hide  represented  the 
amount  of  land  which  would  support  a  family  or  household,  and  Alfred  is 
said  to  have  adopted  "Hydeland"  as  associated  with  the  Latin  "familia  " 
(a  whole  company  of  slaves  in  one  house,  &c),  but  the  connection  is  not 
very  apparent,  though  there  may  be  something  in  the  definition  he 
appears  to  have  attached  to  it,  i.e.,  as  a  measure  of  the  quantity  of 
land  which  one  plough,  which  was  used  in  common  by  a  group  of 
tenants,  could  accomplish  in  a  year. 

Then  there  is  the  oft-told  tale,  about  the  town  or  towns,  for  it  has 
been  applied  to  several  places,  having  been  granted  as  much  land  only 
as  could  be  enclosed  in  a  bull's  hide  ;  the  hide  being  extended  into  a 
considerable  area  by  the  crafty  hero  of  the  story  cutting  it  into  long 
thin  strips  and  using  them  as  cords.  The  Tyrian  Queen  Dido  is 
credited  with  having  resorted  to  this  very  questionable  artifice  to  obtain 
land  for  the  founding  of  Carthage.  There  seems,  however,  little  doubt 
that  a  hide  in  Saxon  times  meant  as  much  land  as  could  be  ploughed 
by  a  large  team  of  oxen  with  one  plough  in  a  year,  and  would  there- 
fore support  a  family  or  group  of  families.  It  varied  from  100  (though 
some  say  from  CO)  to  120  acres;  it  probably  included  meadow  and 
pasture  for  the  teams  and  houses  for  the  men.  Kelham,  in  his  Domes- 
day Book,  says,  "  The  hide  was  the  measure  of  land  in  Edward  the 
Confessor's  reign,  and  the  carucate  that  to  which  it  was  reduced  by 
the  Conqueror's  new  standard.*  Twelve  carucates  then  made  one 
hide,  but  as  a  carucate  indicated  as  much  land  as  could  be  ploughed 
with  a  single  team  in  a  year,  it  necessarily  varied  according  to  the 
Dature  of  the  soil,  and  the  custom  of  husbandry  in  the  particular 

*  Bovate,  virgate,  borders,  are  also  terms  used  in  Domesday,  and  as  they  occur  either  in 
the  body  or  notes  to  this  book,  it  may  be  useful  to  the  reader  to  here  explain  their  meaning. 
Bovate,  as  the  word  implies,  described  the  amount  of  land  one  ox  could  till  in  a  year. 
Virgate  was  a  small  parcel  of  land  from  eight  to  sixteen  acres.  Borders  were  "  boors  "  who 
held  a  small  house,  but  bigger  than  a  cottage,  with  a  little  land  for  husbandry. 


The  designation  Socman  or  Sokeman  is  equally  ancient.  It  apper- 
tained to  persons  who  held  land  in  the  Soc,  or  by  Socage,*  i.e.,  by  a 
tenure  granted  for  a  certain  and  determinate  service  as  distinguished 
from  knight  service,  where  the  rendering  was  precarious  and  uncertain, 
and  also  as  opposed  to  villeinage,  where  the  service  was  of  the  very 
meanest  kind  ;  in  fact,  a  villein  was  but  a  serf  attached  to  the  soil  and 
sold  with  it.  There  were,  however,  two  kinds  of  socage,  distinguished 
as  Free  and  Villein.  Free  socage  was  consequent  on  fealty  and  the 
payment  of  a  small  sum  yearly.  In  villein  socage,  though  the  service 
was  certain  and  defined,  it  was  of  a  baser  nature.  From  these  tenures 
originated  our  copyhold  tenure,  and,  as  Hallam  says,  "  The  free  socage 
tenants  were  the  root  of  a  noble  plant,  our  English  yeomanry,  whose 
independence  stamped  with  peculiar  features  our  constitution  and  our 
national  character."  t  These  tenures  are  generally  considered  to  be 
relics  of  Saxon  liberty  retained  by  such  persons  as  had  neither  for- 
feited their  estate  to  the  Crown  nor  been  obliged  to  exchange  their 
tenure  for  the  more  honourable  but  more  burthensome  one  of  knight 

Amidst  the  confusion  which  must  have  arisen  at  the  time  of  the 
Conquest,  when  the  Saxon  landowners  were  in  great  part,  though 
not  in  all  cases,  deprived  of  their  possessions,  it  is  not  surprising  that 
the  value  of  the  soil  should  have  decreased.  As  already  stated,  land 
in  Greenford  Parva  which  was  only  considered  to  be  worth  ten  shillings 
when  granted  to  Geoffrey  de  Mandeville,  had  been  of  the  value  of 
twenty  shillings,  and  in  the  peaceful  days  of  the  Confessor  of  double 
the  latter  value.  In  fact,  there  had  been  so  great  a  falling  off  of  the 
land  under  tillage  since  the  days  of  the  Saxon  Edward,  that  some 
lands  were  unoccupied  arid  had  become  desolate  at  the  time  of  taking 
the  Survey  (about  1086). 

There  can  hardly  be  a  doubt  that  in  the  fields  now  called  "  The 
Common,"  on  the  northern  boundary  of  Perivale,  we  have  the  last 
traces  of  the  Common  or  Folkland  of  the  Saxon  period  and  afterwards. 

*  This  tenure  is  alluded  to  in  Magna  Carta  (1215).  "Si  aliquis  teneat  de  nobis  per 
feodifirman  vel  per  sokagium  vel  per  burgagium  et  de  alio  terrain  teneat  per  servicium 
militare,"  &c. 

f  "  Middle  Ages."  This  historian  says  also  :  "  I  presume  the  soc  men  were  ceorls  more 
fortunate  than  the  rest,  who  by  purchase  had  acquired  freehold,  or  by  prescription  or  the 
indulgence  of  their  lords  had  obtained  such  a  property  in  the  outland  allotted  to  them,  that 
they  could  not  be  removed,  and  in  many  instances  might  dispose  of  it  at  pleasure." 


Such  land  was  the  property  of  the  village  or  community,  whereon  the 
poorer  folk  could  graze  their  cattle,  or  if  tilled  it  was  cultivated  in 
strips  for  their  common  wants.  Common  or  people's  land  also  existed 
at  that  time  in  Greenford  Magna,  and  in  all  the  neighbouring  villages. 
The  equivalent  of  our  rent  was  often  paid  in  kind,  or  in  feorm,  as 
well  as  in  services  rendered  ;  sometimes  in  Schar  or  Scat  Pennies — the 
farmer  or  "feormer"  supplying  "feorm"  to  those  above  him,  and  the 
scat  penny  was  paid  by  small  tenants  in  lieu  of  the  right  of  their 
immediate  superiors  to  have  the  cattle  driven  at  night  into  their 
enclosures  or  pens  for  the  sake  of  the  manure,  and  is  said  to  have 
varied  from  one  penny  to  fourpence  an  acre. 

It  should  be  mentioned  that  during  the  Saxon  occupation  of  the 
country,  and  for  a  very  considerable  period  after  the  Norman  inva- 
sion, a  great  weald  or  forest  extended  across  Middlesex  north  of  London. 
To  the  ordinary  reader  this  is  now  hard  to  realize,  but  we  have  it, 
among  others,  on  the  authority  of  the  monkish  chronicler  William 
Stephanides,  or  Fitzstephen,  who  wrote  in  the  time  of  Henry  II.  In 
speaking  of  the  City  of  London,  much  of  which  was  then  meadow- 
land,  he  says  : — "  Close  by  lies  an  immense  forest,  in  which  are 
densely-wooded  thickets,  with  coverts  of  game,  stags,  fallow  deer, 
boars,  and  wild  bulls." 


"  The  bay-trees  in  our  country  are  all  withered, 
And  meteors  fright  the  fixed  stars  of  heaven  : 
The  pale-faced  moon  looks  bloody  on  the  earth, 
And  lean  look'd  prophets  whisper  fearful  change  ; 
Rich  men  look  sad,  and  ruffians  dance  and  leap." — Richard  II. 

To  return  to  the  history  of  Greenford  Parva,  otherwise  Cornhull 
or  Cornhill,  and  to  Geoffrey  de  Mandeville,  the  first  Lord  of  the 

This  "  famous  souldier "  was  one  of  the  great  potentates  of  the 
day  :  some  of  his  possessions  have  already  been  noticed  ;  to  add  to 
his  honours  and  titles  the  Conqueror  appointed  him  Constable  of  the 
Tower  of  London,  and  he  held  the  shrievalties  of  London,  Middlesex, 
and  Hertford.  He  founded  a  Benedictine  monastery  at  Hurley,  in 
Berkshire,  as  a  cell  of  Westminster  Abbey,  and  desired  to  be  laid  in 
the  Abbey,  giving  (as  Dean  Stanley  tells  us)  "  in  return  for  his  burial 
the  Manor  of  Eye,  then  a  waste  morass,  which  gave  its  name  to  the 
Eye  Brook,  and  under  the  names  of  Hyde,  Eyebury  (Ebury),  and 
Neate  contained  Hyde  Park,  Belgravia,  and  Chelsea."  Geoffrey  de 
Magna ville  (Mandeville)  signed  as  a  witness  in  conjunction  with 
Archbishop  Lanfranc  and  other  prelates  and  nobles,  the  memorable 
charter  of  William  the  Conqueror,  confirming  the  grant  of  Stortford 
Castle,  lands,  &c,  to  the  church  "St.  Paule,"  and  to  Mauricus,  then 
Bishop  of  London,  and  his  successors,  which  ends  with  the  following 
pious  words,  Anglicised : — "  For  I  would  that  the  church  in  all  things 
be  as  free  as  I  would  my  soul  to  be  in  the  day  of  judgment "  (Stow). 

William  de  Mandeville,  who  succeeded  to  the  estates  and  titles  of 
his  father,  Geoffrey,  appears  also  to  have  inherited  the  Manor  of 
Greenford  Parva  :  "  he  married  Margaret  de  Rie,  heiress  of  the  great 
Eudo  Dapifer,  and  their  son  Geoffrey  was  in  her  right  Hereditary 
Steward  of  Normandy."     This  second  Geoffrey  was  Lord  of  the  Manor 


of  Greenford  Parva  in  the  reign  of  Stephen.  Although,  as  will  be 
seen,  he  became  an  outlaw,  and  it  is  probable  his  lands  were  for  a 
while  confiscated  to  the  Crown,  it  would  appear  that  this  little  manor, 
with  his  other  great  possessions,  were  restored  to  his  family  after  his 
death,  and  remained  in  the  hands  of  his  descendants.  This  is  shown 
by  the  fact  that  the  Manor  of  Greenford  Parva  came  into  the  posses- 
sion of  the  De  Bohuns,  who  in  default  of  male  issue  succeeded  to  the 
estates  of  the  De  Mandevilles. 

The  remarkable  career  of  the  second  Geoffrey  de  Mandeville  is  so 
singularly  eventful,  and  moreover  it  so  far  illustrates  the  condition  of 
society  in  England  at  that  time,  that  it  should  be  given  here  ;  in 
fact,  a  history  of  Greenford  Parva  would  hardly  be  complete  without 
a  full  reference  to  it.  Geoffrey  de  Mandeville  the  Second  was  at  first 
a  strong  adherent  of  the  King  (Stephen),  who  created  him  Earl  of 
Essex,  and  committed  the  custody  of  the  Tower  of  London  to  him, 
which  he  kept  for  the  King  after  the  submission  of  the  citizens  of 
London  to  the  Empress  Maude.  He  even  made  a  raid  on  the 
Empress's  Bishop  of  London,  Robert  de  Sigillo,  and  seized  him  at  his 
palace  at  Fulham.'*  The  Bishop  was  carried  off  to  the  Tower,  and 
was  only  able  to  obtain  his  release  on  payment  of  a  heavy  fine. 

Geoffrey  II.  afterwards  seceded  from  the  party  of  the  King  for 
that  of  the  Empress,  and  was  besieged  in  the  Tower,  but  without 
success,  by  the  citizens  of  London,  who  were  true  to  Stephen.  It  is 
said  "he  was  bribed  to  desert  his  service  by  two  other  more  ample 
charters  from  the  Empress  Maude,  of  which  the  second  dated  from 
Westminster,  and  reconferring  the  Earldom,  is  (says  Dugdale)  '  the 
most  antient  creation  charter  which  hath  ever  been  known.' "  Both 
are  remarkable  for  the  privileges  and  concessions  they  contain.  She 
granted  him  all  the  land,  forts,  and  castles  that  his  father  and 
grandfather  held ;  "  the  Tower  of  London,  with  the  little  castle 
under  it,  to  strengthen  and  fortify  at  his  pleasure  ;  "  t  also  the 
hereditary  shrievalties  of  London,  Middlesex,  and  Hertfordshire, 
with  the  trial  of  all  causes  in  those  counties  ;  all  the  lands  granted 
to  him  by  Stephen,  with  twenty  additional  knights'  fees ;  the 
whole  of  Eudo  Dapifer's  Norman  estates,  with  his  office  of  Steward  ; 

*  "  Annals  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral."     Dean  Milman. 
t  Matthew  Paris.     "  His.  Aug]." 


and  covenanted  that  "neither  the  Earl  of  Anjou  (her  husband),  nor 
herself,  nor  her  children  would  ever  make  peace  with  the  burgesses 
of  London,  but  with  the  consent  of  the  said  Geoffry,  because  they 
were  his  mortal  enemies."  She  constituted  him  Earl  of  Essex,  with 
the  third  penny  of  the  pleas  of  the  shrievalty,  "  as  an  Earl  ought  to 
enjoy  in  his  earldom  ;"  gave  him  the  hereditary  shrievalty  of  the 
county,  and  made  him  and  his  heirs  Chief  Justices  of  Essex  for  ever. 
His  adherence  had  been  valued  at  no  contemptible  price  ;  but,  great 
as  were  the  powers  and  dignities  conferred  upon  him,  he  did  not  long 
enjoy  them.  No  sooner  was  Stephen  firmly  established  on  the  throne 
than  he  had  his  recreant  liegeman  seized  at  the  Court  of  St.  Alban's. 
The  Earl,  a  violent  and  headstrong  man,  did  not  submit  without  a 
sharp  struggle  :  "  they  had  a  bloody  fight,  in  which  the  Earl  of 
Arundel  (though  a  stout  soldier)  being  thrown  into  the  Water  with 
his  Horse,  escaped  drowning  very  narrowly."  He  was  securely 
lodged  in  prison,  and  only  set  free  after  surrendering  the  Tower  of 
London,  with  his  own  castles  of  Walden  and  Pleshy  (in  Essex).  Thus 
bereft  of  his  strongholds,  and  maddened  by  rage  and  disappoint- 
ment, he  betook  himself  to  the  savage  life  of  an  outlaw. 

"  He  was  to  weete  a  stoute  and  sturdie  thief e, 
Wont  to  robbe  churches  of  their  ornaments." 

"  He  collected  a  band  of  determined  followers,  and  foraged  the 
country  in  every  direction  for  spoil,  first  invading  the  King's  own 
demesne  lands  and  wasting  them  miserably." 

Likewise,  having  married  his  sister  Beatrix  to  Hugh  Talbot,  of 
Normandy,  he  caused  her  to  be  divorced  and  wedded  to  William  de 
Say,  "  a  stoute  and  warlike  man."  "  With  his  aid  he  went  on  in 
plunder  and  rapine  everywhere  without  mercy  ;  making  use  of  divers 
cunning  spies,  whom  he  sent  from  door  to  door  as  beggars,  to  dis- 
cover where  any  rich  men  dwelt,  to  the  end  he  might  surprise  them 
in  their  beds,  and  then  keep  them  in  hold  till  they  had,  with  large 
sums  of  money,  purchased  their  liberty." 

"  Being  highly  transported  with  wrath,  he  at  length  grew  so  savage 
that  by  the  help  of  William  de  Say  and  one  Daniel  a  counterfeit 
monk,  he  got  by  Water  to  Ramsey  (in  1143).  and  entering  the 
Abbey  very  early  in  the  morning,  surprised  the  monks  (then  asleep 


after  their  nocturnal  offices),  and  expelling  them  thence  made  a  Fort 
of  the  Church." 

He  took  away  their  plate,  copes,  and  other  ornaments,  "selling 
them  for  money  to  reward  his  soldiers." 

For  this  last  outrage  he  was  publicly  excommunicated  in  1144, 
and  not  long  after,  while  besieging  the  Castle  of  Burwell,  he  put  off 
his  helmet  (it  being  summer)  on  account  of  the  heat,  and  going  bare- 
headed, with  a  shield  and  lance,  he  was  shot  in  the  head  by  one  of 
the  meanest  soldiers,  and  thus  mortally  wounded.* 

"  Whereupon,  lying  at  the  point  of  death  and  ready  to  give  up  his 
last  gasp,"  he  showed  "  great  contrition  for  his  sins,  and  making  what 
satisfaction  he  could,  there  came  at  last  some  of  the  Knights  Templars 
to  him,"  who  put  "  on  him  the  habit  of  their  Order,  signed  with  a  Red 
Cross."  "  Afterwards,  when  he  was  full  dead,  they  carried  his  Dead 
Corps  into  their  Orchard  at  the  Old  Temple  in  London  ;  and  coffining 
it  in  Lead  hanged  it  on  a  Crooked  Tree  ;  "  "  for  in  reverend  Awe  of 
the  Church  they  durst  not  bury  him  because  he  died  excommunicated, 
so  fearful  in  those  days  was  the  sentence  of  excommunication." 

Matthew  Paris, t  who  records  the  facts  relating  to  the  excommunicated 
Geoffrey  de  Mandeville,  says  that  "  the  Earl  was  the  only  person  who 
fell,  and  that  a  manifest  proof  of  the  Divine  wrath  was  displayed  by  the 
walls  of  the  church  streaming  plenteously  with  blood  whilst  it  was  held 
as  a  castle." 

"  Likewise  that  after  some  time,  by  the  industry  and  expenses  of  the 
Prior  of  Walden,  his  absolution  was  obtained  from  the  Pope  Alexander 
the  Third,  so  that  his  Body  was  received  among  Christians,  and 
Divine  Offices  celebrated  for  him.  But  when  the  Prior  endeavoured 
to  take  down  the  Coffin  and  carry  it  to  Walden,  the  Templars,  being 
aware  of  the  design,  buried  it  privately  in  the  Porch  before  the  West 
door  of  the  New  Temple."  This,  as  the  noble  authoress  of  the 
"  Battle  Abbey  Roll  "  says,  "  is  a  striking  story,"  all  the  more  striking 
perhaps  because  it  reminds  us  that  this  spoliator  and  outcast  had  been 
in  his  younger  days  a  benefactor  of  the  Church.  The  Prior  who  inter- 
ceded for  his  absolution  was  the  Superior  of  the  Abbey  that  he  had 

*  "Register  Book  of  "Walden,"  quoted  by  Camden  and  Weever,  and  the  "Battle 
Abbey  Roll,"  the  Duchess  of  Cleveland. 

t  Matt.  Paris,  "His.  Angl."  p.  80.  See  also  Henry  of  Huntingdon,  "Script  Post. 
Bedam,"  Ed.  1596,  and  Dugdale's  "  Monasticon  Anglicanum." 


founded  near  his  Essex  castle,  "  placing  it  upon  a  meeting  of  four 
roadways,  and  in  an  angle  of  two  waters,  that  the  Monks  should  of 
necessity  be  charitable  to  poor  people  and  hospitable  to  passengers." 
It  had  been  consecrated  in  1136,  but  apparently  not  over  richly  en- 
dowed, for  his  successor,  Geoffrey  III.,  evidently  unwilling  to  increase 
its  income,  "  advised  the  Prior  to  be  content  with  a  small  Church  and 
little  buildings." 

Such  is  an  outline  of  the  remarkable  career  of  Geoffrey  de  Mande- 
ville  II.,  the  third  lord  of  the  manor  of  Greenford  Parva.  The 
eGigy  of  Geoffrey  de  Mandeville,  Earl  of  Essex,  with  his  arms  upon 
his  shield,  may  be  seen  in  the  Temple  Church. 

How  the  little  manor  of  Greenford  Parva  fared  under  these  remark- 
able and  untoward  circumstances  it  is  impossible  to  say  with  certainty  ; 
the  probability  is  that  with  many  of  the  other  possessions  of  the  out- 
lawed Geoffrey  it  was  confiscated  and  fell  into  the  hands  of  King 
Stephen,  but  was  afterwards  returned  to  his  successor  Geoffrey  de 
Mandeville,  the  third  of  that  name,  who,  the  records  say,  "  received 
back  his  father's  forfeited  lands."  As  the  manor  is  known,  too,  to 
have  been  in  the  possession  of  the  succeeding  De  Mandevilles,  there 
can  hardly  be  a  doubt  that  the  third  Geoffrey  became  lord  of  the  manor 
of  Greenford  Parva.  He  was  the  second  of  the  three  sons  of  the  out- 
law, and  was  again  created  Earl  of  Essex  by  Henry  II. — the  King  who 
did  penance  and  allowed  himself  to  be  scourged  by  the  clergy  of 
Westminster  Abbey  for  his  rash  words  which  had  brought  about  the 
assassination  of  Thomas  a  Becket.  The  father's  forfeited  lands  restored 
to  him  were  certified  to  one  hundred  and  three  knights'  fees.  "  He 
was  an  elegant  man  of  speech,  much  noted  for  his  abilities  in  secular 
affairs,"  and  "  was  sent  with  the  Justiciary  against  the  Welch  in 
1167";  but  falling  sick  at  Chester,  "  it  hnpned  that,  his  servants 
being  all  gone  to  dinner  and  nobody  left  with  him,  he  died."  "  He 
left  no  children,  having  been  early  divorced  from  his  wife,  Eustachia, 
a  kinswoman  of  the  Kinof"  ;  and  his  brother  Wiliiam,  who  succeeded 
him,  proved  the  last  of  his  race.  William  de  Mandeville,  the  third 
Earl,  is  described  as  "  of  sharp  wit,  prudent  in  council  and  a  stoute 
soldier,  did  not  much  verse  himself  amongst  his  own  relations,  but  spent 
his  youthful  time  for  the  most  part  with  Philip  Earl  of  Flanders,"  and 
Avas  much  employed  in  military  service.    On  his  return  he  was  ap- 



pointed  with  Hugh  Pudsey,  Bishop  of  Durham,  as  Justiciary  of  Eng- 
land during  the  absence  of  Richard  Coeur  de  Lion  in  the  Holy  Land. 

He  died  in  1190  at  Rouen,  and  it  is  stated  of  him  that  when 
"  drawing  near  his  end  he  called  together  his  Kindred  and  Servants, 
and  gave  them  charge  (with  his  hands  lifted  on  high)  to  convey  his 
Body  to  Walden,  in  England,  there  to  be  buried.  But  Henry  de 
Vere,  his  Kinsman,  standing  by,  told  him  That  the  difficulty  of  the 
passage  was  such,  that  it  could  not  be  done.  To  whom  he  replied, 
'If  you  cannot,  it  is  because  you  have  no  mind  to  effect  what  I,  a 
dying  man,  desire.  Then  take  my  Heart  and  carry  it  thither.'  "  Ac- 
cording to  Camden  his  heart  and  also  that  of  the  second  son  of  the 
founder  of  the  Abbey,  were  buried  with  the  body  of  Beatrix  de  Say, 
the  founder's  sister,  in  the  Chapter  House  at  Walden. 

This  curious  and  interesting  history  of  the  De  Mandevilles*  has 
been  given  at  much  length,  not  only  because  they  were  in  succession 
lords  of  the  manor  of  Greenford  Parva,  but  because  we  obtain  from  it 
an  insight  into  the  conditions  of  social  life  which  then  prevailed,  and 
the  manners  and  influence  of  the  higher  Norman  barons,  over  whom  the 
power  of  the  Church  appears  to  have  been  generally  more  effective 
than  that  of  the  sovereign. 

It  is  highly  probable,  too,  that  during  the  period  .when  one  of 
these  great  feudal  barons  possessed  the  manor  of  Greenford  Parva  the 
little  church  there  wras  built  and  consecrated.  This  suggestion  is 
supported  by  the  fact  mentioned  later,  that  the  edifice  is  in  the  Early 
Pointed  or  Early  English  style  as  shown  by  the  pointed  arch  still  pre- 
served in  the  vestry — a  style  which  is  generally  believed  to  have 
originated  in  Stephen's  reign  (a.d.  1135),  and  remained  in  vogue  until 
it  was  perfected  in  that  of  Henry  III.  (1216  to  1272 ).t 

In  default  of  male  descent  the  great  Mandeville  inheritance 
reverted  on  the  death  of  William  de  Mandeville  to  his  father's  sister, 
Beatrix,  the  wife  of  the  William  de  Say  who  had  helped  the  outlawed 
Earl  to  surprise  Ramsey  Abbey,  one  of  whose  daughters  married 
Geoffrey  Fitz  Piers,  a  "man  rich  in  money  and  everything  else,"  and 
he  insisted  that  it  belonged  to  his  wife.  Although  the  King  had  pro- 
mised the  barony  to  the  elder  Beatrix,  whose  right  seemed  beyond 

*  Camden's  "  Brit."  (Gough's),  vol.  ii.,  p.  62,  &c. 

t  "Dictionary  of  Architecture  of  the  Middle  Ages." — John  Britton. 


dispute  ;  and  her  son,  Geoffrey  de  Say,  had  actually  obtained  an 
instrument  under  the  King's  seal  for  the  whole  barony  on  promising 
to  pay  7,000  marks  into  the  Treasury,  it  happened  that  he  neglected 
to  pay  the  money  at  the  time  appointed.  Fitz  Piers  seized  the  oppor- 
tunity, and  offered  the  sum  demanded  by  the  King  in  his  stead,  and 
thus  procured  the  roysl  confirmation  of  his  title.  He  was  a  man 
"  skillful  in  Laws."  "  At  the  coronation  of  John  he  was  girt  by  the 
King  with  the  sword  of  the  Earl  of  Essex.  His  father  had  been 
appointed  by  Cueur  de  Lion  Justiciary  of  England  in  1197,  and  "  ruled 
the  reins  of  government  (says  Matthew  Paris)  so  that  upon  his  death 
the  Realm  was  like  a  Ship  in  a  Tempest  without  a  Pilot." 

"  His  children  by  Beatrix  de  Say  all  took  the  name  of  Mandeville, 
which  ended  with  them,  two  of  whom  became  in  succession  Earls  of 
Essex  and  men  of  mark  amongst  the  Barons  who  wrested  Magna 
Charta  from  King  John."  "In  the  17th  of  King  John,  the  barons 
of  the  realm  being  in  arms  against  the  King,  entered  the  city  (London) 
and  spoiled  the  Jews'  houses  ;  which  being  done,  Robert  Fitzwater  and 
Geoffrey  de  Magnaville  (Mandeville),  Earl  of  Essex,  and  the  Earl  of 
Gloucester,  chief  leaders  of  the  army,  applied  all  diligence  to  repair  the 
gates  and  walls  of  this  city  with  stones  of  the  Jews'  broken  houses." 
This  passage,  quoted  by  Stow  from  Roger  Wendover  and  Matthew  Paris, 
throws  light  upon  the  state  of  the  country  in  the  concluding  year  of 
King  John's  reign,  in  which  a  lord  of  the  manor  of  Greenford  Parva 
figures  conspicuously,  though  not  altogether  to  advantage.*"" 

Both  Earls  of  Essex  descended  from  Beatrix  de  Say  died  without 
issue,  and  the  earldom  and  probably  most  of  the  estate,  but  at  any  rate 
the  manor  of  Greenford  Parva,  devolved  on  the  daughter  Maud,  wife 
of  Humphrey  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford,!  in  whose  family  it  appears 
to  have  remained  for  a  considerable  time. 

We  come  now  to  the  reign  of  Edward  II.,  when  the  powerful  head 
of  the  De  Bohuns  had  succeeded  as  heirs  to  the  possessions  of  the  De 
Mandevilles,  and  in  them  as  superior  lords  of  the  Fee  were  included, 

*  In  1214,  Matthew  Paris  says,  King  John  wrote  to  Geoffrey  de  Mandeville  to  deliver 
the  Tower  of  London,  with  the  prisoners,  armour,  &c.,  to  William,  Archdeacon  of 

t  For  much  of  the  information  regarding  the  De  Mandevilles  and  the  De  Bohuns,  the 
author  is  largely  indebted  to  the  Duchess  of  Cleveland's  elaborate  work,  the  "  Battle  Abbey 
Roll,"  recently  published. 


as  shown  by  existing  records,  lands  in  Greenford  Parva  as  well  as  in 
greater  Greenford. 

Lysons  says  that  estates  called  the  Manor  of  Stickleton  Greenford 
in  Greater  Greenford  and  in  this  parish,  were  given  by  Nicholas  de 
Farnham  to  the  Priory  of  Ankerwyke,  previous  to  Henry  III.'s  charter 
of  confirmation  to  that  monastery.*  He  says,  "  Some  of  these  estates, 
but  what  part  cannot  be  easily  ascertained,  lay  in  the  parish  of  Great 
Greenford,  were  afterwards  granted  to  the  Priory  of  Ankerwyke,  and 
formed  the  Manor  of  Stickleton,  which  was  held  under  the  Bohuns, 
heirs  of  the  Mandevilles,  as  superior  lords  of  the  Fee.  The  manor  of 
Greenford  Parva  or  Cornhull,  was  held  in  like  manner  by  the  Beau- 
monts."f  The  estates  of  the  Priory  here  alluded  to  were  probably 
situated  at  Greenford,  near  Staines,  and  Greenford  Common,  between 
Ashford  and  Lalam,  Middlesex,  in  the  vicinity  of  which  this  ancient 
Priory  existed.  The  learned  author  of  the  "  Environs  "  has  probably 
overlooked  the  fact  that  there  was  another  Greenford  in  Middlesex. 

There  would  appear  to  be  no  doubt  that  the  manor  of  Greenford 
Parva,  alias  Cornhull,  was  at  this  period  possessed  by  the  De  Bohun 
who  succeeded  to  the  other  estates  of  the  De  Mandevilles,  and  probably 
the  De  Beaumonts  or  Bellomonts  who  afterwards  acquired  the  manor 
in  their  own  right,  at  this  time  held  it  under  De  Bohun  as  liege  lord. 

Thus  the  lands  and  honours  of  the  De  Mandevilles  passed  to 
Humphrey  de  Bohun,  son  of  Henry  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford,  and 
as  among  his  estates  he  held  the  manor  of  Greenford  Parva,  some  notes 
relating  to  him  and  his  descendants  are  of  interest, 

Humphrey  de  Bohun  was  descended  from  "  de  Bohun  le  Viel  On- 
frei,"  known  as  "  Humphry  with  the  Beard,"  who,  according  to  Wace, 
fought  among  the  foremost  at  Hastings,  but,  unlike  De  Mandeville, 
was  but  scantily  rewarded  for  his  prowess  by  the  Conqueror,  as  he 
received  only  the  Norfolk  manor  of  Talesford.     As  the  authoress  of 

Th®  gift,  as  recited  in  Dugdale's  "  Monasticon,"  is  very  curious.  "De  dono  magistri 
Nicholai  de  Farnham  unum  mesuagium  oeties  viginti  acres  terras,  unam  acram  prati  et 
dimidiam,  vigniti  solidos  redditus  et  servitium  sextee  partis  feodi  unus  nnlitis  cum  pertin- 
entiis  Grenefeud  (carta  Regis  Henry  III.  donationes  quamplurimas  recitans  et  confirmans) . 
In  the  "  Valor  Ecclesiasticus,"  temp.  Henry  VIII.,  the  lands  of  the  Priory  are  described 
as  in  Hunsloo,  Greneford,  Stanwell,  Staines,  &c.  The  lands  of  this  religious  establishment 
were  granted  by  Henry  VIII.  to  Bisham  Abbey,  and  on  the  suppression  of  the  monasteries 
to  Lord  Windsor.  Dugdale,  '*  Monasticon,"  vol  iii.,  p.  27. 
t  Escheat,  16  Edward  III  ,  No.  35. 


the  "  Battle  Roll "  says,  "  It  was  the  extraordinary  succession  of  great 
alliances  made  by  his  descendants  that  gave  the  name  its  lustre  and 
wealth  of  accumulated  dignities." 

Henry  de  Bohun.  the  father  of  Humphrey,  was  created  an  Earl  by 
"  King  John's  charter  of  1199,  and  as  Earl  of  Hereford  was  one  of  the 
twenty-five  great  Barons  appointed  at  Runnimede  to  be  the  guardians 
of  Magna  Charta,"  and  "  the  next  ensueing  year  the  barons  (according 
to  Dugdale)  raising  fresh  troubles,  was,  by  the  procurement  of  the 
King,  excommunicated  by  the  Pope  ";  "he  was  one  of  the  leaders  of 
the  rebellion  against  Henry  III.,  and  fell  into  the  King's  hands  at 
Lincoln."  He  died  in  1220,  on  his  voyage  to  the  Holy  Land,  having, 
as  we  have  mentioned,  married  Maud,  only  daughter  of  Geoffrey  Fitz 
Piers,  Earl  of  Essex,  with  whom  came  not  only  the  manifold  posses- 
sions of  the  Mandevilles  but  the  famous  badge  of  the  "  White  Swan," 
betokening  her  descent  from  the  mystic  Knight  of  the  Swan,  and  ever 
after  borne  by  her  posterity. 

The  legend  of  the  White  Swan  is  such  a  picturesque  piece  of 
mediaeval  romance  that  the  reader  will  peruse  it  with  interest.  This 
version  is  from  "  Curious  Myths  of  the  Middle  Ages."  "  Wlien  Otho, 
Emperor  of  Germany,  held  court  at  Neumagen  to  decide  between 
Clarissa,  Duchess  of  Bouillon,  and  the  Count  of  Frankfort,  who  claimed 
her  duchy,  the  Count  was  to  appear  in  person  in  the  lists,  whilst  the 
Duchess  was  to  provide  some  doughty  warrior  who  would  do  battle  for 
her."  But  the  poor  lady,  "  as  all  abashed  "  looked  round  in  vain  for 
a  champion,  no  one  present  would  meddle  in  her  quarrel ;  "  whereupon 
she  committed  her  (self)  to  God,  praying  him  humbly  to  succour  her." 
The  council  broke  up,  and  lords  and  ladies  were  scattered  along  the 
banks  of  the  Meuse,  when  lo  !  a  stately  swan  with  a  silver  chain  round 
its  neck  came  sailing  down  the  river,  drawing  a  small  skiff  in  which  lay 
a  knight  in  resplendent  armour,  resting  on  an  argent  shield  blazoned 
with  a  double  cross  of  gold.  He  leaped  ashore,  offered  his  sword  to 
the  forlorn  princess,  carried  her  colours  in  the  lists,  and  triumphantly 
overthrew  her  adversary. 

She  rewarded  him  with  the  hand  of  her  fair  daughter,  and  thus 
Helias,  the  Knight  of  the  Swan,  became  Duke  of  Bouillon,  and  in  due 
time  the  father  of  a  little  girl,  who  received  at  the  font  the  name  of 
Ydain,  married  Eustace   Count  of  Boulogne,   and    was  the  mother 


of  Godfrey  de  Bouillon,  King  of  Jerusalem,  and  of  his  brothers  Bald- 
win and  Eustace. 

Before  his  marriage,  Helias  had  solemnly  warned  his  bride  that  if 
she  ever  inquired  who  he  was,  he  would  have  to  leave  her  for  ever. 
"  One  night  the  wife  forgot  the  injunction  of  her  husband,  and  began 
to  ask  him  his  name  and  kindred.  Then  he  rebuked  her  sorrowfully, 
and  leaving  his  bed  bade  her  farewell.  Instantly  the  swan  reappeared 
on  the  river,  drawing  the  little  shallop  after  it,  and  uttering  loud  cries 
to  call  its  brother.  So  Helias  stepped  into  the  boat  and  the  swan 
swam  with  it  from  the  sight  of  the  sorrowing  lady."  * 

*  See  "The  Battle  Abbey  Roll."  The  Duchess  of  Cleveland  says  that  the  "White 
Swan ' '  was  a  favourite  emblem  in  the  days  of  chivalry.  When  the  eldest  son  of  Edward  I. 
and  a  whole  bevy  of  young  nobles  were  knighted  with  great  ceremony  in  Westminster 
Abbey,  two  swans,  covered  with  gold  net- work  and  trappings,  were  brought  to  the  altar, 
and  the  King,  fixing  his  eyes  upon  them,  solemnly  swore  ' '  by  the  God  of  Heaven  and  the 
Swans  "  that  he  would  revenge  himself  on  the  Scots.  Then  turning  to  his  sons  and  barons, 
he  abjured  them,  should  he  die  before  he  had  fulfilled  his  vow,  to  carry  his  dead  bones 
before  them  to  Scotland,  and  never  let  them  rest  in  the  grave  till  his  enemies  were  humbled 
in  the  dust.  At  the  Canterbury  Tournament,  in  1349,  Edward  III.  bore  a  white  swan 
embroidered  on  his  surcoat,  and  displayed  on  his  shield  with  the  legend — 

' '  Hay,  hay,  the  Whyte  Swan, 
By  Gode's  soul  I  am  thy  man." 


"  Then  mounte  !  then  mounte,  brave  gallants  all, 
And  don  your  helmes  amaine  ; 
Death's  couriers,  Fame  and  Honour,  call 
Us  to  the  field  againe." — Motherwell. 

It  is  probable  that  the  manor  of  Greenford  Parva  remained  in  the 
possession  of  Humphrey  de  Bohun,  the  son  of  Henry,  who  became  Earl 
of  Essex,  and  of  his  descendants,  until  the  reign  of  Edward  II.  (a.d. 
1307-27),  when  the  manor  of  Greenford  Parva,  then  called  also 
Cornhull,  or  Cornhill,  with  the  advowson  to  the  rectory,  appears  to 
have  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  King,  who  granted  it  to  Walter  de 
Langton,  Bishop  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry.* 

This  Walter  de  Langton  was  appointed  by  the  King,  Edward  I., 
Lord  High  Treasurer  of  England  in  1295,  and  elected  Bishop  of 
Lichfield  and  Coventry  in  1295-6.  He  was  a  great  favourite  of 
Edward  L,  for  whose  cause  he  suffered  excommunication,  and  whose 
corpse  he  had  the  honour  of  bringing  from  the  borders  of  Scotland  to 
Westminster.  Immediately,  however,  on  his  arrival  in  London,  he  was 
arrested  and  imprisoned  in  the  Tower,  and  though  the  clergy  repeatedly 
petitioned  Edward  II.  to  grant  his  release,  yet  he  was  shifted  from 
the  Tower  to  Wallingford,  then  to  York,  and  detained  for  two  years 
before  he  obtained  his  freedom  ;  "he  then  retired  to  his  see  at  Lich- 
field, which  was  but  mean  when  he  came  but  he  left  it  magnificent." 
He  continued  in  it  twenty-five  years,  until  he  died  in  1321.  He  built 
not  only  a  new  palace  at  Litchfield  but  repaired  his  castle  at  Eccles- 
hall  and  his  palace  by  the  Strand  in  London,  besides  his  manor  house 
at  Shutborough  in  Staffordshire,  t 

In  lowering  the  ground  around  the  church,  which  had  become  con- 
siderably raised  since  it  was  built,  a  silver  penny  of  Edward  I.  was 

*  Bishop  Langton  had  a  charter  of  Free  Warren  in  Greenford  in  the  preceding  reign 
(3o  Edward  I.,  Cart.  Rot.  No.  48). 
t  *'  Beauties  of  England  and  Wales,  1818." 


found,  in  excellent  preservation,  with  other  coins  ;  the  original  pave- 
ment was  discovered  two  feet  below  the  surface. 

Walter  de  Langton  subsequently  surrendered  the  manor  and  advow- 
son  of  Greenford  Parva  to  the  King  (Edward  II.)  in  exchange  for  the 
church  of  Cestreton  and  Worsfold,  in  Warwickshire.* 

In  the  grant  by  the  King  to  Bishop  Langton  we  find  the  first 
mention  of  the  advowson  attached  to  the  manor,  though,  for  the 
reasons  previously  cited,  it  is  highly  probable  that  the  church  had 
been  built  some  time  before  the  date  of  that  grant. 

It  would  appear  that  either  the  manor  of  Greenford  Parva  changed 
its  lord  rather  frequently  at  this  time,  or  else  that  there  is  some 
confusion  in  the  dates  mentioned  in  the  records,  as  the  grant  of 
Edward  II.  to  the  Bishop  bears  date  Anno  Reg.  7,  whereas,  as  cited 
by  Lysons  (from  the  "Nomina  Villearum,"  No.  2195,  Harl.  MSS.), 
Petrus  le  Botteler  is  said  to  have  been  lord  of  the  manor  of  Greenford 
Parva  in  the  first  year  of  Edward  II.  t 

Although,  as  already  mentioned,  the  advowson  and  manor  of  Green- 
ford Parva  were  held  by  Walter  de  Langton  very  early  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  II.,  who  ascended  the  throne  in  1307,  which  shows  that  the 
little  church  was  then  existing,  there  is  every  probability  that  it  had 
been  erected  at  a  much  earlier  date.  The  Normans  introduced  a  higher 
civilisation  into  Britain  ;  their  love  of  war  and  chivalry  was  associated 
with  art,  learning,  and  a  rude  form  of  piety.  Edward  the  Confessor 
was  religious  if  not  very  monkish,  and  the  people  were  no  doubt,  to 
some  extent,  prepared  for  the  very  many  churches  which  the  Norman 
nobles  and  bishops  erected  as  soon  as  they  took  possession  of  their 
manors.      The  church  at  Perivale  may  not  improbably  have  been 

*  See  Pat.  II.,  Edward  II.,  Pt.  2,  m.  14. 

t  In  1339  a  Peter  (or  Petrus)  le  Botiller  got  himself  into  trouble  in  regard  to  two 
manors  which  he  administered  as  bailiff.  ' '  The  Abbot  of  Westminster  brought  his  writ  of  debt 
against  John  Atte  Watere,  and  demanded  against  him  twenty-five  pounds,  and  said  that  Peter 
le  Botiller  was  his  bailiff  in  respect  of  two  manors  from  such  a  time  to  such  a  time,  having 
the  care  and  administration  of  all  the  goods  that  were  in  the  said  manors,  and  he  said  that 
certain  auditors  were  assigned  to  the  bailiff,  before  which  the  bailiff  rendered  his  account, 
and  that  all  things  had  been  reckoned  which  should  be  reckoned,  and  all  things  allowed 
which  should  be  allowed.  The  said  Peter  remained  in  arrear  £25  when  the  said  Peter 
was,  on  testimony  of  the  auditors,  sent  to  the  gaol  at  Westminster,  which  was  the  nearest 
gaol — the  said  John  Atte  Watere  was  keeper — there  to  remain  until  he  made  satisfaction  to 
the  said  Abbot  for  same  debt.  The  said  John  receiving  the  said  Peter  in  custody.  The 
said  John  Atte  Watere  afterwards  let  him  go  at  large,  wherefore  the  Abbot  brings  this 
action  against  him."  ("  Chronicles  and  Memorials  of  Great  Britain,  &  the  Middle 
Ages— Year  Book,  13  and  14  Edward  III."). 


erected  in  the  time  of  Stephen  or  his  successor — an  opinion  which 
appears  to  be  confirmed  by  the  style  of  architecture  of  the  building, 
alluded  to  later. 

Walter  de  Langton  seems  to  have  surrendered  the  manor  and 
benefice  to  the  King  in  the  same  year  as  he  received  it,  as  in  the 
seventh  year  of  Edward  II.  Sir  Henry  de  Beaumont,  or  Bellomont, 
"  obtained  a  grant  in  fee  of  the  manors  of  Cornhull,  Harrevve,  and 
Little  Grenestede,  with  the  advowson  of  the  church  of  Grenefourd,  in 
the  county  of  Middlesex"  (a.d.  1314).*  He  was  called  also  Lord 
Henry  de  Beaumont. 

Although  Dugdale  mentions  that  "he  was  described  as  consanguineus 
Regis,"  he  says  his  descent  is  involved  in  doubt,  some  tracing  it  from 
Lewes,  son  of  Charles,  Earl  of  Anjou,  a  younger  son  of  Lewes  VIII., 
king  of  France  ;  others  "  from  Lewes  de  Brenne,  second  son  of  John 
de  Brenne,  the  last  king  of  Jerusalem. "t  However  this  may  be,  he 
seems  to  have  been  another  very  "  stoute  souldier,"  and  to  have  been 
of  great  service  to  the  king  in  the  early  part  of  his  reign,  and  he  was 
enriched  with  many  manors  in  Lincolnshire,  as  well  as  in  Liecester- 
shire,  Northumberland,  &c,  besides  the  little  Middlesex  manor  of 
Greenford  Parva.  The  story  of  his  life  as  given  by  Dugdale  reads 
almost  like  a  romance.? 

Being  soon  appointed  Constable  of  Roxburgh  Castle  in  Scotland,  he 
was  sent  by  Edward  II.  with  Humphrey  de  Bohun  and  Robert  de 
Clifford  to  "guard  the  marches."  Upon  the  death  of  the  Bishop  of 
Lincoln  the  custody  of  the  Castle  of  Somerton  in  that  county  was 
bestowed  upon  him  for  life,  he  being  at  the  same  time  Constable  of 
the  Castle  of  Dumfries.  "  In  the  same  year  he  had  a  grant  of  the 
Isle  of  Man  to  hold  for  life  by  the  services  which  the  Lords  thereof 
had  usually  performed  to  the  Kings  of  Scotland." 

*  Cart.,  7  Edward  II.,  No.  30. 

t  It  is  probable  tbat  the  De  Beaumonts  here  mentioned  are  of  the  same  family  as  old 
Roger  de  Beaumont,  "whose  young  son  Robert  was  sent  by  him  to  win  his  spurs  at  Senlac," 
and  who,  "  though  a  novice  in  arms,"  greatly  distinguished  himself  in  the  battle,  and  was 
one  of  the  first  to  break  through  the  English  stockade.  He  became  a  great  noble,  and 
was  rewarded  by  many  manor-.  He  was  enormously  powerful,  and  it  is  said  of  him  "  that 
if  he  was  displeased  with  any  man  he  forced  him  to  submissive  humiliation  ;  if  pleased,  he 
advanced  him  as  he  chose,  by  which  means  he  got  an  incredible  proportion  of  money  and 
jewels,"  says  Henry  of  Huntingdon.  Being  urged  by  his  confessor  to  make  restitution  of 
whatsoever  he  had  got  by  force  or  fraud  from  any  man,  he  answered,  "  If  I  do  so,  what  shall 
I  leave  my  sons."   (For  more  detail  see  "  The  Battle  Abbey  Roll,"  the  Duchess  of  Cleveland.) 

%  Dugdale' s  "  Baronetage." 


"  About  this  time  he  took  to  wife  Alice,  one  of  the  cosins,  and  heires 
to  John,  Earl  of  Boghan,  Constable  of  Scotland  (whose  title  he  after- 
wards assumed),  and  in  the  sixth  year  of  Edward's  reign  "  doing  his 
homage  had  livery  of  the  lands  of  her  inheritance."  A  little  later  and 
he  is  again  employed  in  Scotland  where  war  was  raging,  and  he  was 
"at  that  fatal  Battel  of  Bannocksbourne,  where  the  English  army 
suffered  great  loss." 

In  the  10th  Edward  II.,  says  Dugdale,  he  was  the  King's  lieutenant 
for  the  north  country  between  the  rivers  "  Tine  and  Tese,"  at  which 
time  a  remarkable  mishap  occurred  to  him.  He  was  then  "  accom- 
panying two  Cardinals  sent  from  Home ;  partly  with  the  purpose  to 
reconcile  the  King  to  the  Earl  of  Lancaster,  and  partly  to  inthronize 
Lewes  de  Beaumont,  his  brother,  in  the  Bishoprick  of  Durham  ;  he 
was  set  upon  near  Derlington  by  divers  stoute  robbers,  whereof  Gilbert 
de  Middleton  was  the  chief  (in  revenge  of  his  kinsman  Edmund  de 
Swinburne,  whom  the  King  had  caused  to  be  arrested  for  his  clamor 
against  the  Marches),  and  despoiled  of  all  his  treasure  (as  were  also 
those  Cardinals  and  the  Bishop),  and  not  only  so,  but  carried  to  the 
Castle  of  Mitford  (as  his  brother  the  Bishop  was  to  Morpeth),  there 
to  be  secured  until  they  had  ransomed  themselves." 

In  the  fourteenth  year  of  Edward  II.  he  procured  a  licence  to  make 
a  Castle  of  his  manor  house  of  Whytwyck  (Leicestershire).  The  next 
year  we  find  "  this  Henry,"  as  Dugdale  calls  him,  joined  in  commission 
"  with  Andrew  de  Harcla  for  restraining  the  incursions  of  the  Scots, 
for  which  people  he  had  so  little  kindness  that  (though  he  was  a  Baron 
of  the  realm  and  sworn  both  of  the  great  and  privy  council  as  the 
record  expresseth)  being  required  to  yield  his  advice  concerning  a 
truce  with  them ;  he  unreverently  answered  '  that  he  would  give  none 
therein  ; '  whereat  the  King  being  much  moved  and  commanding  him 
to  depart  the  council,  he  went  out  and  said  '  he  had  rather  be  gone  than 
stay,'  which  expression  gave  such  '  distast '  that  by  the  consent  of 
the  lords  there  he  was  committed  to  prison."  "  Whereupon  Henry  de 
Perci  and  Ralph  de  Nevill  became  his  sureties,  body  for  body,  that  he 
would  appear  upon  summons."  "  But  this  heat  lasted  not  long,"  for 
two  years  later  "he  was  constituted  one  of  the  ambasadors  to  treat  of 
peace  with  Charles,  King  of  France." 

We  come  now  to  his  action  at  that  critical  time  when  the  barons, 


dissatisfied  with  the  weak  fickle  King  who,  after  the  execution  of 
Gaveston  by  the  Earl  of  Lancaster  (who  afterwards  met  with  the  same 
fate  at  the  hands  of  the  King),  had  chosen  Hugh  le  Spenser  as  his 
favourite,  and  he  and  his  father  were  accused  of  usurping  the  royal 
authority.  "  The  defection  of  the  nobles  in  adhering  to  the  Prince 
and  Queen  Isabell  against  the  King  increasing,  as  a  partaker  with 
them,  Henry  de  Beaumont  was  laid  hold  on  and  sent  prisoner,  first  to 
Warwick  Castle  and  afterwards  to  that  of  Wallingford."  Whereupon 
the  scene  shortly  after  changing,  one  of  the  articles  against  Hugh  le 
Spenser  in  the  Parliament  "  was  his  causing  this  Henry  de  Beaumont  " 
(our  lord  of  the  manor)  to  be  imprisoned. 

"  Being  therefore  obsequious  to  the  Queen  and  Prince,"  he  followed 
them  to  the  continent.  "  And  after  her  return,"  with  Roger  Mortimer, 
"  when  the  King  being  deserted  endeavoured  to  reach  Ireland  "  had  got 
away  "  betimes  in  the  morning,"  "  but  was  driven  back  by  contrary 
winds  and  brought  to  this  Henry  ;  he  delivered  him  as  prisoner  to  the 
Queen,  who  soon  after  sent  him  to  Berkley  Castle."  The  horrible  fate 
of  the  King  and  the  execution  of  the  Le  Spencers  is  well-known  history. 

As  remuneration  for  these  services,  he  obtained  a  grant  of  the 
Manor  of  Loughborough,  part  of  the  possessions  of  Hugh  le  Spencer. 
Afterwards  under  Edward  III.,  as  chief  of  the  English  lords  who  had 
been  disinherited  of  their  lands  in  Scotland,  he  led  an  expedition  made 
by  ship  to  that  country  (the  king  having  forbidden  them  entering  that 
realm  by  land)  and  gained  a  victory  over  the  Scots  near  Gledismore. 
The  authority  of  the  King  was  not  to  be  thus  dealt  with  ;  he  caused 
all  the  castles,  manors,  and  lands  belonging  to  "  this  Henry  "  de  Beau- 
mont to  be  seized  on.  "  Nevertheless,  soon  afterwards  upon  further 
examination  of  what  was  laid  to  his  charge"  in  the  Parliament  then 
sitting  at  Westminster,  an  Act  was  passed  by  which  they  were  again 
restored  to  him. 

Later  he  is  found  engaged  again  in  the  Scotch  war,  and  besides  other 
grants  he  is  acquitted  of  debts  due  by  him  to  the  Exchequer,  and  espe- 
cially 400  marks  lent  to  him  at  York  towards  the  payment  of  his  ransom 
when  he  was  imprisoned  in  Scotland.  Afterwards  he  obtained  one 
hundred  and  forty  pounds  nine  shillings,  "  for  wages  of  himself  and  his 
men-at-arms,  and  a  precept  to  the  Sheriff  of  Yorkshire  to  permit  his  wife 
and  children  to  reside  in  the  Tower  of  York,"  during  his  absence  in 


Flanders.  He  died  in  the  fourteenth  year  of  Edward  Ill's  reign  (1341), 
possessed  of  "  the  Castle  and  Manor  of  Folkyngham,  and  many  other 
manors,  sixty-three  knights'  fees,  &c.,  leaving  a  son  John,  twenty-two 
years  old."  Why  he  should  have  been  so  anxious,  having  his  own  castle 
and  manor  houses,  to  place  his  wife  and  children  in  the  Tower  of  York, 
we  have  no  record.  It  was  no  doubt  this  Henry  de  Beaumont,  lord  of 
the  manor  of  Greenford  Parva,  who  presented  John  de  Gravale  in  1336. 
The  patron  at  that  time  is  not  mentioned  by  Newcourt,  but  Dugdale 
helps  to  supply  the  blank,  according  to  whom  he  had  a  younger  son, 
Thomas,'""  and  Stow  says  there  was  formerly  a  monument  in  Our  Lady's 
Chapel  in  the  old  church  at  Greyfriars,  Farringdon  Within,  to  the 
memory  of  Thomas  Beaumont,  son  and  heir  of  Henry,  Lord  Beaumont 
(a.d.  1417).f  It  would  appear  that  the  manor  of  Greenford  with  the 
advowson  were  inherited  by  his  son  John,  as  his  grandson  is  found  to 
be  in  possession  of  land,  &c, ,  there. 

Of  this  John  de  Beaumont  we  have  little  information,  but  in  the 
fifteenth  year  of  the  reign  of  Edward  III.  "  he  was  reteined  to  serve 
the  King  at  sea  with  61  men  at  armes,  whereof  one  (was)  Baneret, 
24  knights,  40  men  at  arms,  and  40  archers  for  40  days  ;"  in  which 
year  he  was  also  in  the  war  with  Scotland,  when  he  died,  leaving 
Henry,  his  son;  two  years  of  age.  The  following  curious  passage 
occurs  in  Dugdale  : — "  Whereupon,  in  order  to  his  funeral,  the  King 
sent  his  precept  to  William  Shirebourne,  a  burgess  of  York,  to  make 
payment  of  two  hundred  pounds  of  those  moneys  which  he  did  then 
owe  for  130  sacks  and  twenty  clays  of  wooll  by  him  received  out  of 
the  North  and  East  Riding  of  that  county,  unto  Sir  William  de 
Burton,  Knight,  to  the  use  of  Aliamore,  the  widow  of  the  defunct, 
towards  the  charge  of  that  great  solemnity." 

He  was  succeeded  in  his  honours  and  property,  at  any  rate  as  to 
land,  &c,  in  Greenford  Parva,  by  his  son,  Henry  de  Beaumont  the 
second,  and  according  to  Newcourt,  Lord  Arundel  acted  as  his  guar- 
dian (in  minori  sestate  existent),  who  presented  to  the  benefice  Ric 
Hauberks  (no  date  given),  and  Will.  Alborowes  in  1363.  About  this 
time  Radulphus  de  Baldock,  or  Baudake,  and  Simon  de  Sudbury 
were  in  succession  Bishops  of  London.  The  latter  as  Chancellor 
incurred  the  odium   of  an  insurgent  rabble,  who  beheaded  him  on 

*  Dugdale's  "  Baronetage."  f  Stow  (Thorns,  1876)  p.  210. 


Tower  Hill :  the  execution  or  murder  of  a  Bishop  in  this  manner  is 
significant  of  the  times  The  germs  of  the  Reformation  had  already 
been  sown,  and  "  it  is  said  that  in  the  midst  of  a  vast  multitude  of 
pilgrims  wending  their  way,  in  profound  devotion,  to  the  shrine  of 
St.  Thomas  of  Canterbury,  Bishop  Sudbury  reproved  them  for  their 
superstitious  folly,  and  said  that  their  hopes  of  a  promised  plenary 
indulgence  were  vain  and  idle."  Dugdale  says  the  second  Henry  de 
Beaumont,  becoming  of  "  full  age,"  in  the  thirty-fourth  year  of  King 
Edward  the  Third's  reign,  "did  his  homage  and  had  livery  of  his 
lands,"  and  obtained  "  a  precept  to  the  Lord  Treasurer  and  Baron  of 
the  Exchequer  for  the  acquiting  him  of  100  pounds  due  for  the  ferm 
of  his  lands  whilst  he  was  in  his  minority,  towards  the  charges  he  had 
been  at  in  attending  the  King  in  his  last  expedition  beyond  the  sea." 
He  died  in  1370,  leaving  John  de  Beaumont,  his  son  and  heir,  a 
minor,  the  wardship  of  whom  was  committed  to  Lord  Latimer,  "  who 
had  custody  of  his  lands  during  his  minority"  (Dugdale).  In  the 
tenth  year  of  Richard  II.  he  made  proof  of  his  age,  and  "  doing 
homage  he  had  livery  of  his  lands,"  amongst  which  we  know  was  the 
property  in  Greenford  Parva.  Like  his  ancestors  he  seems  to  have 
been  of  a  warlike,  adventurous  disposition.  We  find  him  "  accom- 
panying John  of  Gaunt  into  Spain,  but  afterwards  expelled  the  Court 
as  an  evil  councellor  to  the  King ;  but  this  discontent  somewhat 
abating,  he  obtained  licence  to  pass  into  Calais,  there  to  exercise 
himself  with  feats  of  arms  with  the  French ;  four  knights  of  that 
country  having  challenged  as  many  English  to  just  (joust)  with  them 
there  :  at  which  time  he  tilted  with  the  Lord  Chamberlain  to  the 
King  of  France,  and  in  the  12  year  of  Richard  II.'s  reign  he  was 
made  Admiral  of  the  King's  Fleet  to  the  northwards,  also  one  of  the 
Wardens  of  the  Marches  unto  Scotland,  whereupon  he  entered  into 
that  country  40  miles — spoyled  the  Market  of  Fowyke  and  brought 
many  prisoners  back."  In  fact,  he  appears  to  have  been  so  valiant 
that  it  was  necessary  to  curb  him,  as  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  the 
King's  reign  "he  received  special  prohibition  that  he  should  not 
exercise  any  feats  of  arms  with  the  French  without  the  licence  of 
Henry  de  Perci,  Earl  of  Northumberland." 

After  having  been  made  Constable  of  Dover  Castle  and  Warden  of 
the  Cinque  Ports,  he  subsequently  became  one  of  the  "  King's  Com- 


missioners  to  contract  marriage  for  him  with  the  Lady  Isabel,  eldest 
daughter  of  the  King  of  France."  He  died  in  1397,  having  presented 
to  the  benefice  at  Greenford  Parva,  first  Edmundus,  and  subsequently 
John  Mussendon  in  1384,  who  resigned  in  1388.  Besides  his  Manor 
of  Greenford  Parva,  he  possessed  also  that  of  Edmonton,  Middlesex, 
and  many  others  in  Lincolnshire.  This  John  de  Beaumont  is 
described  as  being  "seized  of  100  acres  of  land;  the  Church  of 
Greenford  Parva,  taxed  at  100  shillings;  a  ruinous  messuage,  15 
acres  of  meadow  land  held  under  the  priory  of  St.  Helen's;  the 
reversion  to  a  carucate  of  land  ;  5  acres  of  meadow  ;  6  of  pasture, 
and  25s.  rents  held  for  life  by  Lawrence  de  Avres  under  the  Earl  of 
Hereford  "  (De  Bohun).* 

The  above  reference  to  the  Priory  of  St.  Helen's  may  suggest  to  the 
reader  that  the  Church  of  Greenford  Parva  may  have  originated  from 
a  monastery  which  once  existed  there,  but  there  is  no  evidence  what- 
ever upon  which  such  a  supposition  can  be  based.  The  church  and 
benefice  are  always  alluded  to  as  "  an  advowson"  in  the  gift  of  the 
Lord  of  the  Manor. 

It  is  pleasant  to  turn  for  a  moment  to  the  reign  of  Edward  III., 
during  which  lived  Chaucer,  "  the  father  of  English  poetry,"  and 
John  Wickliffe,  the  pioneer  of  the  Reformation.  The  former  has  left 
us  a  pleasing  picture  in  the  "  Canterbury  Tales"  of  a  good  "Parsone" 
in  his  day,  which  may  have  been  applicable  to  the  worthiest  of  the 
rectors  of  Greenford  Parva  at  that  time — 

' '  A  gode  man  was  there  of  religion, 
And  he  was  a  poor  parsone  of  a  toun, 
But  riche  he  was  of  holy  thought  and  werke, 
He  was  also  a  lernid  man  —  a  clerke 
That  Cristis'  Gospel  trowely  wolde  preche  ; 
His  Parischens  devoutly  wolde  he  teche, 
Benygne  he  was  and  wondyr  dely-gent, 
And  in  adversitie  full  patient. 

He  waytede  after  no  pomp  ne  reverence 
Ne  makyd  hym  no  spisede  (spiced)  concience, 
But  Crysty's  lore  and  his  Apostels  twelve 
He  taught,  but  ferst  he  folwede  it  hymselve. 

We  had  at  least  five  rectors  at  Greenford  Parva  during  the  time 
Wickliffe  lived  (1324  to  1384)  :  did  either  of  them  have  the  courage 

*  See  Esch.  No.  35.  Henry  de  Bohun  died  seized  of  the  Fee  of  Southall  in  1372.    (Esch. 
46,  Edward  III.,  No.  10.) 


he  had  to  challenge  some  of  the  doctrines  and  practices  of  the  Romish 
Church  ?  For  such  a  role  mental  capacity  and  vigour,  as  well  as  great 
courage,  were  absolutely  necessary,  and  neither  of  the  Rectors  of 
Perivale  have  left  enough  of  their  imprint  "  on  the  sands  of  time"  to 
say.  It  is  sufficient  here  to  record  that  the  little  church,  the  name 
of  whose  patron  saint  the  same  cause  has  obliterated,  was  then  existing 
and  apparently  flourishing,  judging  by  the  regularity  with  which  the 
rectors  were  appointed,  and  had  been  established  many  years 

There  is  an  interesting  note  that  the  rectory  was  rated  in  1327  at 
rx  marks.*  The  reign  of  Edward  III.  is  much  associated  with  the 
the  battles  of  Crecy  and  Poictiers  and  other  like  contests,  which  have 
redounded  to  the  military  glory  of  this  country,  and  these  successful 
battles  have  been  attributed  so  much  to  the  skill  of  the  English 
archers,  conjoined  to  the  strategy  and  courage  of  the  Black  Prince, 
that  in  this  retrospect  in  the  history  of  an  old  country  village,  it  is 
well  to  remember  how  important  an  ingredient  in  the  e very-day  life 
of  the  countryside  at  this  time  must  have  been  the  English  bowman. 
Archery  was  constantly  practised,  and  the  use  of  the  longbow,  and, 
to  a  more  limited  extent,  that  of  the  crossbow,  as  a  means  of  training 
for  warfare,  was  greatly  encouraged  by  the  sovereign.  "  The  warrior 
King  Edward  III.  in  1365  enjoined  on  the  sheriffs  of  London  the 
general  proclamation  of  his  will  that  every  citizen  of  robust  strength, 
laying  aside  all  idle  and  profitless  games,  should  in  his  leisure  hours 
and  on  all  holidays  learn  and  practise  the  art  of  shooting  with  bows 
and  arrows."  t  Afterwards,  in  the  reign  of  Richard  II.,  an  Act  was 
passed  commanding  all  servants  to  exercise  themselves  at  all  times, 
and  on  all  holidays,  with  the  same  weapons. 

Even  in  Henry  VI.  's  reign,  so  important  was  skill  in  archery  con- 
sidered, that  Sir  John  Fortescue,  an  eminent  lawyer  at  that  time, 
declared  "  that  the  mighte  of  the  realme  of  Englande  standyth  upon 

The  butts  or  practising-ground  was  not  far  away  from  Greenford 
Parva.  At  Brentford  Butts  there  were,  no  doubt,  frequent  contests 
between  the  skilled  archers  of  the  day.     The  butts  in  various  places, 

*  Harl.  MSB.,  No.  60. 

t  Rot.  Claus.,  39  Edward  III.     For  a  full  article  on  this  subject  see  Pinks'  "  History  of 


such  as  those  at  Newington,  Brentford,  &c.,  still  retain  their  names, 
and  recall  the  keen  interest  which  was  then  taken  in  such  exercises, 
though  their  glories  have  passed  away,  and  the  ground  over  which  sped 
many  an  arrow  in  peaceful  rivalry  is  now  covered  with  "genteel  villas." 

Over  the  fields  and  woods  about  Greenford  Parva  was  also  shot 
many  an  arrow  and  bolt  which,  no  doubt,  furnished  the  bowman  with 
a  substantial  result  of  his  skill ;  and  though  the  laws  enacted  both 
by  the  Saxon  and  Norman  enabled  the  thanes  and  Norman  nobles 
to  keep  a  tight  hold  of  their  game,  still  as  the  country  about  Green- 
ford  Parva  then  abounded  in  woodland,  and  was  but  sparsely  popu- 
lated in  the  old  days,  we  may  be  sure  that  many  a  bird,  as  well  as 
larger  game,  has  fallen  to  the  grey  goose  shaft  of  the  bowman, 
unknown  to  the  Lord  of  the  Manor  or  his  vassals,  in  the  woods  and 
meadows  where  the  rifleman  now  practises  at  the  Butts  in  the  Brent 

The  names  of  the  neighbouring  villages  still  testify  to  the  woods 
which  once  flourished  in  this  part  of  Middlesex.  We  have  Southall 
(a  corruption  of  South  holt)  and  Northolt,  the  holt  being  Anglo- 
Saxon  for  wood  ;  as  well  as  Harrow  Weald,  the  last  syllable  of  which 
is  the  Anglo-Saxon  for  a  wooded  region,  and  is  cognate  with  the 
German  "  wald."  Houndslow,  in  old  records  spelt  Huneslawe,  Hun- 
deslawe,  and  Hunsloo,  is  another  name  which  indicates  the  existence 
in  Saxon  times  of  large  forests  north  of  the  Thames.  It  is  highly 
probable  that  a  forest  ranger  dwelt  there  whose  duty  it  was  to  put  in 
force  the  oppressive  Norman  laws  made  for  the  preservation  of  the 
game  in  the  King's  forests,  whereby  it  was  enacted  that  all  dogs  used 
for  collecting  herds  of  oxen,  swine,  &c,  should  be  laived — i.e,  dis- 
abled from  hunting  deer  by  cutting  off  the  balls  and  claws  of  the 
forefeet.  Periodically  an  inquisition  was  held  for  this  purpose,  and 
"  he  whose  dogge  is  not  lawed  and  so  founde  shall  be  amerced,  and 
shall  pay  for  the  same  three  shillings  for  mercy."  The  Saxon  laws 
were  less  severe.  In  the  opening  chapter  of  "  Ivanhoe,"  Gurth,  the 
swineherd,  says  to  Wamba,  "  A  devil  draw  the  teeth  of  him  and  the 
mother  of  mischief  confound  the  ranger  of  the  forest  that  cuts  the 
foreclaws  of  our  dogs  and  makes  them  unfit  for  their  trade." 

Acton  was  no  doubt  Oak-town,  and  derived  from  the  Anglo-Saxon 
ac,  an  oak,  and  ton,  an  enclosure  or  settlement. 


"  Its  lords  have  been  great  in  the  olden  day, 
But  the  pride  of  their  strength  has  been  taken  away  ; 
They  moulder  unknown  in  their  native  land, 
And  their  home  has  long  past  to  a  stranger  hand." — Ernest  Jones. 

Resuming  the  history  of  the  Manor  and  Rectorate  of  Greenford  Parva, 
otherwise  Perivale  :  hitherto,  and  dating  from  the  Norman  Conquest, 
the  entire  control  of  the  parish  would  appear  to  have  been  in  the 
hands  of  the  feudal  barons — great  lords  of  the  soil,  who  sometimes 
occupied  high  positions  about  the  person  of  the  sovereign  in  whose 
reign  they  lived — attending  the  king  in  his  wars  or  employed  by  him 
in  other  ways,  but  occasionally  engaged  in  rebellion  against  him. 
Whether  Greenford  Parva  served  the  purpose  of  a  knight's  fee  or  fees 
there  is  no  actual  evidence,  but  the  probability  is  that  the  land  there- 
abouts was,  for  two  or  three  hundred  years  after  the  defeat  of  Harold, 
divided  into  portions  and  held  by  knights  and  retainers  on  condition 
of  their  accompanying  their  feudal  chief  in  whatever  military 
service  he  was  engaged  in.  In  many  old  manor  houses  and  castles  in 
England,  the  breast-plates  and  other  parts  of  the  simple  armour  of 
the  men-at-arms  is  still  preserved.  There  is  a  tradition  that  the 
manor  place  of  Perivale  formerly  contained  two  such  sets  of  warlike 

To  the  feudal  lords  seem  to  have  succeeded,  as  owners  of  the  manor, 
some  important  persons,  but  of  another  kind  altogether. 

Sir  John  de  Beaumont  or  Bellomont  alienated  the  manor  and  bene- 
fice to  Thomas  Charlton  in  1387.*  A  curious  confirmation  of  the 
conveyance  of  the  property  of  the  former  in  Parva  Greenford,  Harrow 
and  Ealing  to  the  respective  purchasers  or  grantees  (among  whom  is 
Charlton)  is  contained  in  the  Close  Roll  referred  to.  The  deed  runs 
(translated)  as  follows  : — "  I,  William  Wyslepp  of  Northall  in  Middle- 
sex have  released  and  quit  claimed  for  ever  to  Thomas  Charlton,  John 

*  Cl.  R.,  10  Richard  II..  M.  21,  d. 
D  2 


Hervy,  John  Newman  (vicar  of  the  church,  Hillyndon),  John  At 
Boure,  John  Baddcok,  and  John  Lass  (chaplains),  all  his  right  and 
claim  to  the  manor  of  Parva  Grenford,  otherwise  called  Cornhull,  and 
the  advowson  of  the  same  vill  with  the  appurtenances  and  also  all 
lands  and  tenements  called  Esthalle  with  the  appurtenances  and  in 
all  lands  and  tenements  which  the  aforesaid  Thomas  Charlton,  John 
Hervy,  John  Newman,  &c,  &c,  hold  in  the  Vills  of  Harwe,  Yillynge 
and  Parva  Greneford  which  the  said  Thomas  (Charlton)  acquired  from 
John  Bell-Monte  (Beaumont),  Lord  of  Folkyngham.  Dated  4  Feb- 
ruary 10th  year  Richard  II. — acknowledged  in  the  court  of  Chancery 
7  February  of  the  same  year." 

Thomas  Charlton  owned  the  manor  and  benefice  for  many  years, 
and  presented  John  Chinchgate  to  the  living  in  1388,  on  the  resig- 
nation of  Mussendon ;  afterwards  the  former  also  resigned,  and  Richard 
Lambard  was  appointed,  1395.  On  the  death  of  the  latter,  John 
Segrave  was  presented,  and  Pet.  Ward  and  W.  Hind  succeeded  him  on 
his  decease,  but  the  record  does  not  state  whether  this  last  change  was 
the  resul  t  of  death  or  the  resignation  of  the  previous  rector. 

About  this  time  (1367 — 1399)  the  clergy  generally  were  so  fond 
of  hunting  and  hawking — sports  which,  with  the  tournament,  were  the 
favourite  amusements  of  the  nobility  and  gentrj',  and  in  which  ladies 
played  a  prominent  part — that  an  enactment  came  into  operation  that 
every  parson  who  had  not  a  benefice  of  the  yearly  value  of  ten  pounds 
was  forbidden  to  keep  a  dog  for  hunting.  There  is  a  tradition  still 
in  the  hamlet,  that  one  of  the  rectors  in  the  early  part  of  this  century 
had  the  same  partiality  for  the  hunting  field. 

Religious  persecution  began  to  show  itself  also  about  this  period — 
the  leaven  of  the  Reformation  was  commencing  to  operate  in  the 
minds  of  men  ;  to  the  clergy  generally,  particularly  to  those  who  were 
most  conscientious  and  earnest,  the  signs  of  the  times  were  fraught 
with  anxiety.  They  were  momentous  to  the  rectors  of  Greenford 
Parva  as  to  others.  The  Lollards  were  persecuted,  and  many  of  them 
were  executed.  In  1401  Henry  IV.  enacted  that  persons  accused  of 
heretical  opinions  could  be  tried  by  the  Bishop  and  burned  by  the 
Sheriff ;  yet  Lollardism  increased  in  proportion  as  it  was  persecuted. 
John  Sawtre,  a  London  clergyman,  was  the  first  who  died  for  his 
religious  opinions  ;  he  was  burned  in  Smithfield  in  1401. 


In  1435  the  manor  and  advowson,  described  as  late  the  property 
of  Sir  Thomas  Charlton,  seem  to  have  been  held  by  Thomas  Hall  or 
Halle,  but  he  conveyed  them  the  same  year  to  William  Eastfield, 
citizen  and  alderman  of  London*  when  Henry  VI.  was  reigning  :  he 
presented  Hugo  Nobull  to  the  rectory  in  1435,  and  afterwards  William 
Come,  without  any  cause  being  assigned  as  far  as  Newcourt's  record  is 

William  Eastfield  here  mentioned  was,  no  doubt,  the  worthy  citizen 
mentioned  by  Stow  as  one  of  the  sheriffs  in  1422,  a  year  in  which  the 
old  chronicler  says  "  the  West  Gate  of  London  was  begun  to  be  built 
by  Sir  Richard  Whittington's  executors."  William  Eastfield  became 
Lord  Mayor  of  London  in  1429  (the  title  of  Lord  Mayor  was  adopted 
in  1381)  and  was  created  a  Knight  of  the  Bath.  As  Sir  William 
Eastfield,  mercer,  he  became  again  Mayor  in  1437.  He  was,  to  use 
Stow's  words,  "  a  great  benefactor  of  conduits,"  and  followed  close  on 
the  steps  of  Sir  Richard  Whittington,  "  the  thrice  Lord  Mayor  of 
London,"  in  his  efforts  with  others  to  get  a  supply  of  "  sweet  water  " 
for  London.  Thus,  a.d.  1423,  Sir  Richard  Whittington  built  a 
reservoir  at  Billingsgate  for  the  use  of  the  market  people,t  and  in  the 
same  year,  that  worthy  knight  made  "  a  Boss  of  clear  water  in  the  walls 
of  St.  Giles'  Churchyard,  called  Cripplegate  Conduit"  In  1438  Sir 
William  Eastfield  brought  water  here  from  "HighBerie."  In  the 
same  year  Sir  William  Eastfield,  then  Mayor,  built  the  Fleet  Street 
Conduit,  opposite  Shoe  Lane.  This  conduit  was  supplied  from  Pad- 
dington,  and  Stow  says  that  this  had  a  fair  tower  of  stone,  and  was 
garnished  with  images  of  St.  Christopher,  &c,  "  with  sweet  sounding 
bells  before  them,  whereupon  by  an  engine  placed  in  the  tower,  they 
divers  hours  of  the  day  chimed  such  a  hymn  as  was  appointed." 

"  Aldermanbury  Conduit,  opposite  the  south  side  of  St.  Mary's 
Church,"  subsequently  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire,  and  afterwards 
rebuilt,  was  erected  under  the  will  of  Sir  William  Eastfield,  the  worthy 

*  Close  R.,  13  Henry  VI.,  m.  14.  An  abstract  from  this  roll  is  interesting  : — "Dec.  4. 
Thomas  Hale  of  Yillynge  (Ealing),  Middlesex,  husbandman  (probably  his  name  is  only 
used  as  a  form  of  law),  conveys  to  William  Eastfield,  Henry  Frowyk  (citizens  and  aldermen 
of  London),  John  Carpenter,  Robert  Burton,  Alexander  Aune,  John  Wylton,  Thomas 
Dale  (clerk),  John  Leget  (clerk),  Roger  Byrkes,  property  in  Greenford  and  Yillynge, 
which  were  of  Thomas  Charlton  (Knight),  Henry  Erowyk,  William  Brag,  Thomas  Warner, 
and  others." 

t  "History  of  Clerkenwell,"  by  W.  J.  Pinks,  with  additions  by  E.  J.  Wood,  1881. 


Lord  of  the  Manor  of  Greenford  Parva,  the  successor  of  the  fortunate 
apprentice,  Sir  Richard  Whittington,  who,  whether  he  owed  his  great 
fortune  to  his  "  cat,"  in  the  form  of  our  domestic  pussy,  or  to  a  ship 
of  that  name,  laden  with  a  particularly  suitable  cargo  for  the  port  to 
which  it  was  destined,  must  have  been  a  man  of  great  enterprise  and 
energy  ;  and  whether  he  ever  rested  on  Highgate  Hill  on  leaving  the 
city  as  a  boy  in  despair  at  his  prospects,  to  be  recalled  by  the  distant 
sound  of  Bow  bells  to  fame  and  fortune,  and  ultimately  to  marriage 
with  his  rich  master's  daughter  (as  the  story  is  told),  or  not,  it  is 
evident  he  was  a  citizen  of  whom  even  this  generation  may  feel 
proud  ;  and  that  our  Lord  of  the  Manor  and  owner  of  the  advowson 
of  Perivale  was  a  man  imbued  with  the  same  spirit  of  doing  good  to 
the  people  who  lived  with  him  and  after  him. 

Stow,  who  wrote  in  Elizabeth's  reign,  says  he  had  a  dwelling-house 
at  Aldermanbury  in  the  City  : — "  In  this  Aldermanburie  Street  be 
divers  fair  houses  on  both  sides,  meet  for  merchants  or  men  of 
worship,  and  in  the  midst  thereof  is  a  fair  conduit,  made  at  the 
charges  of  William  Eastfield,  some  time  Mayor,  who  took  order  as  well 
as  water  to  be  conveyed  from  Teyborne  and  for  the  building  of  this 
conduit  not  far  distant  from  his  dwelling-house,  as  also  for  a  standard 
of  sweet  water  to  be  erected  in  Fleet  Street,  all  of  which  was  done 
by  his  executors."  * 

Sir  William  Eastfield  died  in  1438,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Mary's, 
Aldermanbury,  "  under  a  fair  monument,"  "  having  been  a  great 
benefactor  to  that  church ;  he  also  built  its  steeple,  changed  their 
bells  into  five  tuneable  bells,  and  gave  one  hundred  pounds  to  other 
works  of  the  church." 

From  William  Eastfield  the  manor  and  advowson  passed  (they 
appear  always  to  have  been  held  together)  to  John  Middleton  and 
others  in  1453.  It  may  be  that  they  presented  John  Ely  in  1453 
as  trustees,  but  in  1464  Jac.  Gyfiford  appears  to  have  been  appointed 
by  the  Bishop  of  London  seemingly  in  default  of  the  owner  of  the 
advowson  exercising  his  right.  Stow  says,  a  J.  Middleton  was 
Sheriff  in  1450.  The  next  owner  of  the  manor  and  benefice  was 
John  Bohun,  Armiger  (a  title  now  very  nearly  extinct,  which  was 
then  equivalent  to  Esquire  in  the  days  of  chivalry).      He  presented 

*  "Stow's  Survey,"  W.  J.  Thorns,  1876. 


Robert  Hooper  in  1472  and  Henry  Bartelot  in  1473,  both  of  whom 

It  helps  the  reader  to  realize  the  condition  of  the  country  during 
which  these  changes  were  taking  place  if  it  is  remembered  that 
during  thirty  years  included  in  these  dates  (1455  to  1485)  occurred 
the  Wars  of  the  Roses,  in  which  twelve  pitched  battles  were  fought 
and  eighty  princes  of  the  blood  slain,  not  to  mention  the  large  portion 
of  the  old  nobility  who  were  destroyed.  Though  severe  battles  were 
fought  at  St.  Alban's  and  Barnet,  not  so  very  distant  from  Greenford 
Parva,  it  does  not  appear  that  its  fortunes  were  directly  affected  by 
the  struggle. 

Henry  Collet,  who  succeeded  John  Bohun  as  lord  of  the  manor, 
and  who  presented  John  Taylor  to  the  benefice  in  1490,  was  in  all 
probability  the  Henry  Collet,  mercer,  who  was  twice  Lord  Mayor  of 
London  and  knighted,  as  mentioned  by  Stow,  and  the  father  of  Dr. 
John  Collet,  D.D.,  Dean  of  St.  Paul's,  the  founder  of  St.  Paul's  School 
in  1512.* 

It  is  said  "  that  he  chose  John  Percival  (Merchant  Taylor),  his 
carver,  as  Sheriff  by  drinking  to  him  in  a  cup  of  wine,  according  to 
custom,"  when  he  became  Lord  Mayor  in  1495.  "  Percival  forthwith 
sat  down  at  the  mayor's  table  "  and  his  Sheriff,  so  chosen,  became 
mayor  in  1498.t  Henry  Collet  was  a  benefactor  to  the  Church  of  St. 
Anthony  in  Budge  Row,  where,  according  to  Stow,  there  were  formerly 
representations  of  him,  his  wife,  her  sons  and  her  daughters,  in  a 
painted  glass  window  on  the  north  side  of  the  church. 

The  worthy  mercer  resided  for  many  years  at  Stebunhith 
(Stepney),  then  quite  in  the  country,  and  a  place  where  the  Alder- 
men, Sheriffs,  and  citizens  of  London  used  to  go  maying  in  the 
Bishop  of  London's  woods  there.  %  Henry  Collet  had  twenty-two 
children,  of  whom  Dean  Collet  was  the  sole  survivor.  The  premature 
death  of  so  large  a  family — in  many  cases  caused  by  the  great  scourge 
of  this  period,  the  sweating  sickness — must  have  had  a  deeply 
saddening  effect  on  him,  as  well  as  on  the  character  of  his  son,  who, 
after  several  attacks  of  the  malady,  fell  a  victim  to  it  at  the  age  of 

*  "Stow's  Survey,"  Thorn's  ed.      Newcourt  spells  it  Collet.     Lysons  appears  to  have 
copied  the  name  incorrectly  as  Colet. 

t  "  Old  and  New  London,"  Thornbury  (Cassell's).  X  Stow. 


Henry  Collet  was  buried  at  Stebunhith,  of  which  parish  his  son 
held  the  living  until  he  was  made  Dean  of  St.  Paul's,  and  it  was  not 
long  after  that  the  revenue  therefrom  became  augmented  by  his 
succession  to  the  great  wealth  of  his  father,  which,  Dean  Milman  says, 
he  entirely  devoted  to  public  advantage  and  charity. 

Henry  Collet  presented  John  Taylor  to  the  living  in  1490,  on  the 
resignation  of  Henry  Bartelot,  after  the  latter  had  held  the  rectorate 
for  seventeen  years. 

The  son  of  the  Lord  of  the  Manor  of  Greenford  Parva,  the  founder  of 
St.  Paul's  School,  was  the  friend  of  Erasmus,  and  a  man  of  great 
learning  and  high  character,  and  a  reformer  when  it  was  dangerous  to 
show  sympathy  for  reform.  Stow  tells  us  he  committed  the  oversight 
of  the  school  "  to  the  mercers  in  London,  because  himself  was  son  to 
Henry  Collet,  mercer,  Mayor  of  London,  and  endowed  the  mercers  with 
lands  to  the  yearly  value  of  £120  or  better,"  which  has  now  happily 
grown  into  a  large  revenue.  Being  asked  why  he  had  left  his 
foundation  in  trust  to  laymen,  as  tenants  of  his  father,  rather  than  to 
an  ecclesiastical  foundation,  he  replied,  "  that  there  was  no  absolute 
certainty  in  human  affairs,  but  for  his  part  he  found  less  corruption 
in  such  a  body  of  citizens,  than  in  any  other  order  or  degree  of 

Latimer  tells  us  the  Dean  narrowly  escaped  burning  for  his 
opposition  to  image  worship.  Foxe  says,  in  his  "  Acts  and  Monuments," 
"  that  William  Tyndale  in  his  book,  answering  Master  Moore,  added 
moreover  that  the  Bishop  of  London  would  have  made  the  said 
Collet,  Dean  of  St.  Paul's,  a  heretic  for  translating  the  '  Pater  Noster 
into  English,  had  not  the  Bishop  of  Canterbury  holpen  the  Dean." 
It  is  not  easy  to  realize  now  that  a  man  should  run  the  risk  of  an 
ecclesiastical  prosecution  and  the  probability  of  being  burnt  for 
translating  "  the  Lord's  Prayer "  into  English.  The  Dean  must, 
however,  have  been  in  considerable  danger  when  preaching  a  sermon 
before  the  king  (Henry  VIII.)  in  1521,  on  the  victory  of  Christ,  which 
it  was  considered  might  have  the  effect  of  turning  the  hearts  of  the 
soldiers  and  they  might  be  withdrawn  from  his  wars  then  in  hand. 
"  The  king  took  him  aside  and  talked  with  him  in  secret  confidence, 
walking  in  his  garden."  The  Bishops  then  about  the  person  of  the 
king  fully  expected  (some  would  have  rejoiced)  that  he  would  be  sent 


to  the  Tower.  Foxe  says  the  king,  however,  dismissed  Collet  in  these 
words  :  "  Let  every  man  have  his  doctor  as  him  liketh  ;  this  shall  be 
my  doctor."* 

The  eighth  Henry  had  faults  enough  :  it  is  well  to  record  his 
protection  of  Dr.  Collet,  the  son  of  the  Lord  of  the  Manor  of  Perivale, 
at  this  crisis,  as  on  the  other  side  of  the  account,  although  it  was  not 
conveyed  in  the  best  king's  English. 

Henry  VIII.'s  assumption  of  the  supreme  authority  of  the 
English  Church,  and  his  severance  from  the  Pope,  whose  champion 
he  had  previously  been,  is  the  most  memorable  event  in  the  reform 
movement.  With  no  real  love  for  Lutheranism,  he  commenced  by 
persecuting  the  reformers  ;  he  ended  by  supporting  them  writh  the 
full  power  of  the  State.  The  circulation  of  the  Scriptures  which  he 
permitted  produced  a  great  sensation,  and  was  the  cause  of  great 
bitterness  and  strife.  People  frequented  the  churches  to  hear  the 
Bible  read  and  explained,  but  it  was  also  the  subject  of  angry  dis- 
cussion. It  caused  unseemly  wrangles  in  ale-houses  and  common 
tap-rooms  ;  around  the  church  porches,  and  even  within  the  sacred 
edifices,  it  is  said,  noisy  crowds  gathered,  and  contended  for  their 
several  opinions. 

It  may  be  supposed  that  the  little  church  at  Perivale  escaped 
these  scandals  from  its  position,  being  comparatively  distant  from 
London,  but  this  is  hardly  likely  to  have  been  the  case.  It  was  in 
the  country  districts  especially  that  the  religious  disputes  were  most 
rife,  and  as  Perivale  was  a  more  important  village  at  that  time  than 
it  has  been  during  the  past  hundred  years,  it  probably  suffered  from 
the  effects  of  such  strifes,  and  the  loss  of  its  oldest  records  and  many 
of  its  ancient  monuments  was  the  result.  The  following  is  among 
the  contents  of  a  Book  of  Articles  devised  by  the  king,  to  establish 
Christian  quietness  and  amity  among  the  people,t  dated  1538  : — "That 
ye  provide — one  book  of  the  whole  Bible  of  the  largest  volume  in 
English,  and  the  same  set  up  in  some  convenient  place  within  the 
said  church,  that  ye  have  the  cure  of,  where  your  parishoners  may 
most  commodiously  resort  to  the  same  and  read  it.  The  charges  of 
which  book  shall  be  rateably  borne  between  you,  the  parson  and 
parishoners  aforesaid,  that  is  to  say,  the  one  half  by  you,  the  other 

*  Foxe's  "  Acts  and  Monuments."  t  Ibid. 


half  by  them."  The  articles  contain  directions  that  "  the  Lord's 
Prayer  is  to  be  learned  in  English — Sermons  to  be  read  quarterly — 
Priests  not  to  haunt  ale-houses — Pilgrimages  forbidden — Pra}rers  to 
be  in  the  mother  tongue — Images  abolished."  These  extracts  enable 
us  to  realise  the  state  of  religious  thought  and  practice  at  this 

The  manor  and  benefice,  according  to  Lysons,  next  became  vested 
in  Sir  Robert  Southwell ;  *  but  Newcourt  says  the  proprietor  at  that 
time  was  Ric.  Southwell,  and  that  he  presented  Jac.  Aynsworth 
to  the  rectory  in  1494,  who  subsequently  resigned  like  his  prede- 
cessor, and  the  same  lord  of  the  manor  appointed  William  Maneyard 
in  1503. 

The  frequent  resignation  of  the  rectors  about  this  time  is  a  notice- 
able fact.  Lysons  says,  Sir  Robert  Southwell  died  seized  of  the 
manor  and  advowson  of  Greenford  Parva  in  1516,  and  on  referring 
to  the  authority  for  this  statement,  he  appears  to  be  right,  though 
the  proprietor  could  hardly  have  been  the  Master  of  the  Rolls  and 
Privy  Councillor  of  that  name  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  The 
latter  had  a  brother,  Sir  Richard  Southwell,  also  a  man  of  consider- 
able importance,  and  the  brothers  were  much  at  Court  and  in  favour 
with  the  King.  They  are  both  mentioned,  as  hereafter  quoted,  in 
Machyn's  remarkable  book,  recording  the  burning  of  persons  for  their 
religious  opinions,  the  funeral  ceremonies  of  persons  of  distinction, 
and  other  curious  information  set  forth  with  much  zeal  and  detail, 
and  in  words  very  remarkably  spelt.t  In  the  interleaved  and 
embellished  copy  of  Lysons'  "  Environs,"  now  in  the  Guildhall 
Library,  which  is  said  to  have  been  thus  further  illustrated  by  Mr. 
Douce,  the  author  and  antiquary  (to  whom  it  is  believed  formerly 
to  have  belonged),  there  is  an  engraved  portrait  of  Sir  Robert  South- 
well, the  Master  of  the  Rolls,  and  presumably  a  son  of  the  Sir  Robert 
Southwell,  owner  of  the  manor,  &c,  of  Greenford  Parva.  The  late 
owner  appears  to  have  adopted  this  suggestion  by  inserting  the  portrait 
where  the  name  is  mentioned,  and  he  is  probably  correct. 

*  Cole's  "Escheats."  Harl.  MSS.,  756.  This  deed  refers  to  Robert  Southwell  and  his 
connection  with  Greenford  Parva.  It  also  mentions  his  wife  Elizabeth  and  his  sister 
Francis  (sixth  year  of  Henry  VIII.) . 

t  "The  Diary  of  Henry  Machyn,  Citizen  and  Merchant  Taylor  of  London,  a.d.  1650  to 
1663."     (Camden  Soc.  Pub.) 


Machyn refers  to  the  death  of  Sir  Robert  Southwell  thus  : — "  1559 
the  VIII  day  of  November  was  buried  in  Kent  Ser  Robartt  Sowth- 
well  Knight,  sum  time  Master  of  the  Rolls  with  a  harold  of  armes,  a 
target,  a  elmett  and  viij  dosen  skochyons  of  armes." 

Whatever  Sir  Robert  Southwell,  the  brother,  may  have  been  after- 
wards, it  is  evident  that,  in  1555,  he  was  a  supporter  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  Queen.  In  this  year  it  was  expected  by  a  large  number  of 
people  that  Mary  would  in  a  few  months  give  birth  to  a  child,  as 
Foxe  says  : — "  Of  this  child  there  was  great  talk  in  every  man's  mouth, 
especially  among  such  as  seemed  in  England  to  carry  Spanish  hearts 
in  English  bodies.  In  number  of  whom  is  not  here  to  be  forgotten, 
nor  defrauded  of  his  condyn  commendation  for  his  wortlry  affection 
towards  his  prince  and  her  issue.  One  Sir  Richard  Southwell,  who 
being  the  same  time  in  the  parliament,  when  the  Lords  were  occupied 
with  other  affairs  and  matters  of  importance,  suddenly  started  up 
from  fulness  of  joy  burst  out  in  these  words,  '  Tush,  my  masters,' 
quoth  he,  '  what  talk  ye  of  these  matters.  I  would  have  you  take 
some  order  for  our  young  master  that  is  now  coming  into  the  world 
apace  lest  he  find  us  unprovided,"  &c. 

Speaking  of  Sir  Richard  Southwell,  presumably  a  son  of  the  lord 
of  the  manor,  Machyn  informs  us  that,  "  Master  Sowthwell  and  divers 
mo(re)  received  the  Kyng  and  Quen  on  the  26  April  1555  at  Gren- 
wyche,"  how  he  attended  as  a  "  Mornar"  with  other  notables  at  the 
obsequies  of  the  King  of  Denmark ;  how  he  went  to  Lady  W.'s 
funeral,  "  where  her  husband  and  she  had  a  harold  and  mony  mornars 
as  Ser  Recherd  Sowthwell  and  dyvers  odurs  and  at  to  that  of  Ser 
Thomas  Pope  at  darken  well "  with  the  Clarence  and  York  "  harolds  " 
and  then  to  a  "  grett "  dinner  afterwards. 

It  is  significant  of  the  times  to  find  on  the  same  page  that  he 
"  whent"  (on  the  1st  of  July  in  that  year)  "  to  Smythfield  to  borne 
(burn)  Master  Bradford  a  grett  (great)  precher  in  Kyng  Edward's 
dayes,  and  a  talow  chandlers  prentes  (apprentice)  dwelling  by  Nugatt 
by  viij  of  the  cloke  in  the  mornyng  with  a  grett  compane  of 

Newcourt's  record  shows  that  from  1521  to  1559,*  Humphrey 
Brown  and  Sir  Humphrey  Brown  and  his  wife  presented  to  the  rec- 

*  "  Newcourt  Repertorium."     See  copy  of  his  record,  later. 


tory,  as  owners  of  the  manor  and  advowson  :  Thomas  Marshall  in 
1521,  Thomas  Veysey  in  1523,  John  Rysdale  in  1540,  and  Patricius 
Calyn  in  1559,  during  which  period  Wareham,  Tunstall,  and  Bonner 
were  in  succession  Bishops  of  London.  With  the  return  of  the  latter 
to  his  see  and  the  ascent  of  the  throne  by  the  cruel,  bigoted  Mary, 
came  the  dreadful  persecutions  of  the  reformers.  Heresy  was  to  be 
exterminated  with  the  horrors  of  the  stake. 

The  historian  tells  us  that  these  persecutions  and  burnings  began 
in  the  early  part  of  1555,  the  first  victims  being  Rogers,  Prebendary 
of  St.  Paul's  ;  Hooper,  Bishop  of  Gloucester ;  Saunders,  Rector  of 
Allhallows,  and  Taylor,  Rector  of  Hadleigh,  in  Suffolk  ;  and  that 
they  lasted  for  more  than  three  years,  when  the  Queen  died.  Such 
atrocities  were  committed  not  far  from  the  rectory  of  Greenford 
Parva,  in  1558,  as  in  that  year  six  persons  were  burnt  at  Brentford 
for  advocating  the  new  opinions.  They  were  not  connected  in  any 
way  with  Brentford  ;  these  poor  martyrs  who,  it  is  said,  went  "joy- 
fully to  the  stake  whereunto  they  were  bound,"  were  "  of  that  company 
that  were  apprehended  in  a  close  by  Islington,"  and  it  is  probable, 
as  suggested  by  Foxe,  that  they  were  sent  to  the  county  town  to 
strike  terror  into  the  neighbourhood. 

Would  that  John  Rysdale,  who,  according  to  Newcourt's  record, 
enjoyed  the  benefice  for  nineteen  years,  until  he  resigned  in  1559, 
had  left  us  a  journal  or  some  record  of  the  state  of  religious  feeling 
at  Greenford  Parva  and  the  neighbouring  towns,  and  of  how  he  felt 
when  such  terrible  events  were  taking  place.  Rysdale  resigned  the 
year  following  Elizabeth's  accession,  and  the  new  parson  under  the 
Protestant  Queen  was  Patricius  Calyn,  who  was  rector  for  fourteen 
years  until  he  died. 

Sir  Humfrey  Browne,  Lord  of  the  Manor,  &c,  of  Greenford  Parva, 
and  described  as  of  Rooding  Abbots,  in  Essex,  was  a  judge  of  the 
Court  of  Common  Pleas  in  the  reigns  of  Henry  VIII.,  Edward  VI., 
Mary,  and  Elizabeth,  and  altogether  a  very  distinguished  man  ;  he 
was  knighted  between  1533  and  1537.*    His  daughter  and  coheiress, 

*  Son  of  Thomas  Browne,  of  Longhouse,  in  Abbotts  Rooding,  Essex,  &c.  Arms,  Gules 
a  chevron  between  3  lions  gambs,  erased  and  erect,  within  a  bordure  argent ;  over  a  chief 
of  the  2nd  thereon  an  eagle  displayed  sable  armed  and  ducally  crowned  or.  Crest,  a  lion's 
gamb  erased  and  erect  argent  holding  a  wing,  sable.  See  "Walter  C.  Metcalf's  "  Book  of  the 
Knights  Banneret,  Knights  of  the  Bath,  &c."  (London,  1885),  and  Foss's  "  Tabulse 
Curiales"  (London,  1865),  &c. 


Christiana,  married  Sir  John  Tufton,  Baronet,  of  Rainham,  Kent,  and 
Hothfield.  His  brother,  Sir  Wyston  Browne,  was  dubbed  knight  at 
Bruges  in  1511-12. 

Machyn  (op.  cit.)  records  his  death  in  1562,  and  gives  the  follow- 
ing curious  account  of  his  funeral  : — ■ 

"The  XV  day  of  Desember  1562  was  cared  (carried)  by  the 
Clarkes  of  London  from  Seypulkurs  unto  Sant  Martens  orgaynes 
(Orgars)  in  Kanwykstrett  (Candlewick  Street,  now  Cannon  Street)  to 
be  bered  be  (by)  on(e)  of  ys  wyffes  the  lord  justes  Browne  Knyght 
with  ij  haroldes  of  armes,  master  Clarenshux  and  master  Somersett  ; 
furst  whent  a-for  xxiiij  pore  men  in  mantyll  fryse  gownes,  and  after 
a  xx  clarkes  carehyng  ther  surples  on  ther  armes,  and  next  the 
standard  borne  by  a  mornar,  and  then  cam  the  ij  chaplens  and  dyvers 
mornars  and  then  cam  a  harold  beyryng  the  helme  and  crest,  and 
next  cam  master  Clarenshux  beyrying  the  cott  of  armes,  and  then 
cam  the  pennone  of  armes,  and  then  cam  the  corse  with  a  palle  of 
blake  velvett  with  armes  on  yt,  and  then  the  cheyff  mornars  and  my 
lord  Mordantt  with  odur,  and  then  cam  the  juges  and  sergant(s)  of 
the  coyffe,  and  next  all  the  ynes  of  the  court- in  a-ray,  a  gret  nombur 
and  thruge  (through)  Chepesyd  (Cheapside)  ;  and  master  Renakur 
mad  the  sermon,  and  after  home  to  a  grett  dener." 

Stow  records  that  he  bequeathed  "  divers  houses  "  to  the  parish 
of  St.  Martins  Orgars,  but  mentions  no  other  memorial  of  him.  This 
must  have  been  another  critical  time  in  the  history  of  the  little 
church  of  Greenford  Parva,  as  of  other  churches  in  this  country.  The 
short  reign  of  Edward  VI.  is  remarkable  for  the  vigorous  strides 
made  by  the  Reformation.  Even  before  the  appearance  of  the 
Commissioners  in  1547,  charged  with  the  edict  of  the  Council  which 
commanded  the  destruction  of  images,  pictures  of  the  saints,  forbade 
processions  and  the  continuance  of  all  customs  and  practices  deemed 
to  be  superstitious,  the  people  had  in  many  places  taken  the  matter 
into  their  own  hands  and  despoiled  the  churches  of  all  objects  which 
were  considered  objectionable.*     Images  and  even  stained  glass  were 

*  Froude  says,  in  the  autumn  and  winter  of  1552  no  less  than  four  commissions  were 
appointed  with  this  one  object,  all  of  which  were  to  go  over  the  oft-trodden  ground,  and 
glean  the  last  spoils  which  could  be  gathered  from  the  churches.  In  the  business  of  plunder 
the  rapacity  of  the  Crown  officials  had  been  far  distanced  by  private  peculation.  The  halls 
of  country-houses  were  hung  with  altar-cloths  ;  the  knights  and  squires  drank  their  claret 
out  of  chalices,  and  watered  their  horses  in  marble  coffins.     Pious  clergy,  gentlemen  or 


removed,  and  in  many  cases  the  walls  were  whitewashed  in  order  to 
hide  the  painted  illustrations  of  the  lives  and  legends  of  saints.  The 
"  Grey  Friars  Chronicle"  says,  briefly  but  bitterly : — "  And  so  alle 
imagys  pullyd  down  throw  all  Ynglande  at  that  tyme  and  alle 
Churches  new  whytelimed,  with  the  commandements  wrytten  on  the 
walls."  * 

Heylyn  says  : — "  Many  private  men's  parlours  were  hung  with  altar 
cloths,  their  tables  and  beds  covered  with  copes,  instead  of  carpets 
and  overlids ;  and  many  carousing  cups  made  of  the  sacred 
chalices,  as  once  Belshazzar  celebrated  his  drunken  feast  in  the 
sanctified  vessels  of  the  Temple.  It  was  a  sorry  house,  and  not 
worth  naming,  which  had  not  somewhat  of  this  furniture  in  it,  though 
it  was  only  a  fair  large  cushion  made  of  a  cope  or  altar  cloth,  to  adorn 
their  windows  or  to  make  their  chairs  appear  to  have  somewhat  in 
them  of  a  chair  of  state." 

Tombs  were  stripped  of  their  monumental  brasses.  Nor  was  this 
all,  for  those  sources  of  revenue  to  the  priests,  both  secular  and 
monastic,  the  obits  and  chantries,  were  abolished,  and  property  left  to 
purchase  the  prayers  of  the  priests  for  the  repose  of  the  souls  of  the 
dead  was  diverted  to  the  Royal  Treasury. 

It  had  been  enacted,  as  already  mentioned,  that  a  large  Bible  in 
English  should  be  placed  in  every  church  ;  it  was  generally  secured 
by  a  chain  to  the  lectern,  and  with  it  was  often  placed  a  copy  of 
"Erasmus'  Paraphrase  of  the  Gospel."  The  first  Book  of  Common 
Prayer  was  published  in  1549.  It  is  certain  that  although  these 
changes  were  generally  favourably  received  in  the  towns,  they  were 
stoutly  objected  to  in  many  country  places.  Insurrections  broke 
out,  led  by  men  who  demanded  the  restoration  of  the  old  faith  and 
the  destruction  of  Protestantism,  even  by  fire  and  sword.  Bishops 
Bonner  and  Gardiner  were  imprisoned  for  resisting  the  commis- 
sioners, and  although  they  were  soon  liberated,  they  still  opposed 
the  Reformation  and  were  deprived  of  their  sees.  They  were  restored 
to  them,  we  know,  in  the  succeeding  reign  of  Mary.      With  the  full 

churchwardens  had  in  many  places  secreted  plate,  images,  or  candlesticks,  which  force 
might  bring  to  light.  Bells,  rich  in  silver,  still  hung  silent  in  remote  church  towers,  or 
were  buried  in  the  vaults,  &c. 

*  See  Dean  Milman's  "Annals  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,"  page  73,  quoted  by  Wharton, 
from  William  Chartham,  a  monk  of  Canterbury. 


force  of  their  minds  they  henceforth  endeavoured  to  exterminate 
Protestantism,  punishing  heresy  by  the  stake,  as  the  history  of  this 
country  records. 

The  little  church  at  Greenford  Parva  and  its  rectors  had  to  pass 
through  the  trying  ordeal  of  these  times. 

In  1573  Henry  Millet  is  found  to  be  in  possession  of  the  right 
of  presentation  to  the  benefice,  and  Lord  of  the  Manor  of  Greenford 
Parva,  which  about  this  time  began  to  be  known  as  Perivale.  It  is 
probably  his  father's  or  grandfather's  tomb  which  is  still  preserved — 
with  the  brasses  representing  his  wives,  Alice  and  J  oan,  and  fifteen 
children,  referred  to  later — among  the  monuments  in  the  church,  and 
with  the  year  of  his  death,  1500,  and  the  one  now  reproduced  from 
Mr.  Farthing's  MSS.  (see  Plates)  is  probably  the  brass  effigy  of  his 
son  and  successor,  George  Millet,  who,  as  owner  of  the  manor  and 
advowson,  presented  to  the  living  in  1587.  Lysons  says  there  was 
a  brass  on  the  floor  of  the  chancel  to  the  memory  of  George  Millet, 
with  the  date  1600,  and  no  doubt  the  drawing  made  by  Mr.  Farthing 
is  of  the  one  referred  to  by  him. 

There  is  an  interesting  monument  in  the  chancel  recording  the 
death  of  his  wife,  afterwards  Mrs.  Shelbury,  and  describing  her  late 
husband  as  "  Lord  of  this  Towne,"  &c,  which  will  be  noticed  among 
the  other  memorials  in  the  church. 

It  is  evident  that  Perivale  or  Greenford  Parva  was  a  more  impor- 
tant place  at  that  time  than  it  has  ever  been  since.  The  Millets 
appear  to  have  held  much  land  in  this  neighbourhood  about  this 
time.  Among  the  records  of  Greenford  Magna  is  one  which  states 
that  William  Millet,  of  that  parish,  left,  in  1663,  £5  per  annum  to 
buy  gowns  of  frieze  for  two  poor  men  and  two  poor  women  (his 
monument  is  on  the  floor  of  the  church  of  Greater  Greenford).  *  A 
John  Millet  held  the  Manor  of  Hayes,  Middlesex,  and  died  in  pos- 
session of  it  in  1628,  and  another  member  of  the  family,  William 
Millet,  gave  in  1631,  a  close  of  land  for  the  good  of  the  poor  of 
Norwood,  Norcott,  Heston,  and  Southall  (Lysons). 

Nicholas  Osmund,  who  was  appointed  rector  by  George  Millet  in 
1587,  and  enjoyed  the  living  until  he  died  in  1621,  i.e.,  during  the 

*  Robert  Millet,  yeoman,  and  Margaret  Thornton,  spinster,  of  Greenforde,  Middlesex, 
daughter  of  Jerome  Thornton,  late  of  the  same,  yeoman,  deceased,  were  married  by  licence 
in  1585(6). — (Colonel  Chester's  "  Marriage  Licences.") 


later  part  of  Elizabeth's  reign,  and  in  that  of  James  I.,  must  have 
witnessed  the  agitation  of  the  people,  who  were  divided,  on  the  acces- 
sion of  James  L,  into  the  three  great  parties — the  Eoman  Catholics, 
Episcopalians,  and  Puritans — each  of  which  was  striving  for  ascen- 
dency and  cherishing  hopes  of  favour  from  the  King. 

The  people  got  hold  of  a  saying  of  the  then  reigning  Pope — "  The 
preaching  of  the  Gospel  is  the  destruction  of  the  Church  "  * — and  no 
doubt  repeated  it  in  a  sense  not  intended  by  the  Pontiff.  How  inter- 
esting would  be  Nicholas  Osmond's  sermons  during  the  thirty-four 
years  of  his  ministry,  if  he  held  decided  opinions  !  Probably,  however, 
like  his  King's,  they  were  expressed  in  the  words,  "  No  bishop,  no 

From  the  Millets,  the  manor  and  advowson  descended  by  female 
heirs  to  the  families  of  Lane  and  Harrison,  and  perhaps  Thomas 
Hobman  and  E.  Maplesdon,  mentioned  in  the  following  record  as 
presenting  to  the  living,  belonged  to  these  families. 

The  period  when  Thomas  Hobman,  citizen  of  London,  presented 
Francis  Hobman  and  Edward  Kead,  and  John  Lane  made  Henry 
Wyatt  rectors  of  Perivale — i.e.,  between  1621  and  1661 — must  have 
been  another  very  trying  period  for  the  little  church  of  Perivale  and 
its  rectors.  The  obscurity  of  the  hamlet  could  hardly  have  saved  the 
latter  from  the  observation  of  the  "  Committee  of  Tryers,"  who  were 
appointed  in  1653  to  examine  the  qualification,  character,  and  fitness 
of  ministers. 

The  committee  is  thus  satirized  in  "  Hudibras  "  : — 

"Whose  business  is,  by  cunning  sleight, 
To  cast  a  figure  for  men's  light, 
To  find  in  lines  of  beard  and  face 
The  physiognomy  of  Grace  ; 
And  by  the  sound  and  twang  of  nose, 
If  all  be  sound  -within  disclose  ; 
Free  from  a  crack  or  flaw  of  sinning, 
As  men  try  pipkins  by  the  ringing." 

It  is  said  "  these  tryers  pretended  to  great  skill  in  this  respect ; 
and  if  they  disliked  the  beard  and  face  of  a  man,  they  would  for  that 
reason  alone  refuse  to  admit  him,  when  presented  to  a  living,  unless 
he  had  some  friend  to  support  him."  This  is,  no  doubt,  an  exag- 
gerated statement,  though  the  committee  exercised  very  fully  the  power 

*  "Calendar  of  State  Papers,"  1613. 


they  had  of  ejecting  from  the  church  livings  such  of  the  clergy  as  they 
deemed  unfit,  by  reason  of  their  conduct,  practice,  or  preaching,  and 
those  who  held  Episcopalian  opinions  were  of  course  most  frequently 
the  sufferers.  Among  the  most  ardent  of  the  "  Tryers "  was  the 
famous  Philip  Nye,  a  strong  adherent  of  Cromwell,  although  a 
powerful  advocate  for  Independency  in  Church  government  as  op- 
posed to  Presbyterianism.  He  was  very  zealous  for  the  "  cause,"  the 
acceptance  of  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  and  sat  as  a  member 
of  the  Assembly  of  Divines  at  Westminster.  He  was  appointed  to 
officiate,  and  when  the  resolution  for  taking  the  Covenant  passed  that 
body,  he  read  the  document  from  the  pulpit  with  a  very  audible  voice, 
article  by  article,  each  person  standing  with  his  right  hand  up  to 
affirm  the  solemn  declaration. 

For  his  services  generally  he  was  appointed  Rector  of  Acton,  and 
drew  up,  in  conjunction  with  others,  the  preface  to  "  the  Directory  " 
which  was  ordered  to  be  substituted  for  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer 
in  1654,  and  he  was  nominated  one  of  the  assistants  to  the  Commis- 
sion for  ejecting  "  insufficient  ministers  and  schoolmasters."  He  is 
alluded  to  in  "  Hudibras  "  in  the  following  sarcastic  lines  : — 

"  With  greater  art  and  cunning  rear'd 
Than  Philip  Nye's  thanksgiving  beard." 

From  these  observations  we  are  able  to  understand  the  character  of 
the  sturdy,  "  independent "  rector  of  Acton,  and  appreciate  the  effect 
of  the  close  proximity  of  Nye's  watchful  eye  and  "  thanksgiving 
beard"  on  the  rector  or  rectors  of  Perivale  at  that  time.  Francis 
Hobman  and  Edward  Reed  either  had  to  conform  to  the  times  or 
resign.  It  is  noticeable  that  there  is  a  break  in  Newcourt's  record 
at  this  period.  The  reason  for  Reed's  vacating  the  living  is  not 
stated,  nor  are  the  dates  between  which  Hobman  held  it  mentioned  : 
in  fact,  there  appears  to  have  been  a  lapse  in  the  appointment  of 
the  rectors  of  Perivale,  and  the  church  may  have  been  closed,  as  there 
is  no  entry  in  the  list  of  rectors  until  the  Restoration,  when  Henry 
Wyatt  is  collated  in  1661  by  the  new  Lord  of  the  Manor,  John  Lane, 
who  had  married  the  eldest  daughter  of  George  Millet,  "  sometime 
patron  of  the  church." 

These  facts  seem  to  point  at  any  rate  to  some  confusion  in  regard 
to  the  church  at  Perivale  between  1621  and  1661. 


The  Parliamentary  soldiers  were  located  on  several  occasions  not 
many  miles  away,  when  the  battles  were  fought  at  Brentford  ;  and 
Cromwell's  army  was  entrenched  at  one  time  on  Hillingdon  Hill. 
The  earthworks  they  erected  may  still  be  seen. 

The  learned  author  of  "  Greater  London  "  (Edward  Walford)  says 
that  "  on  a  survey  taken  about  the  time  of  the  Restoration,  Ealing  is 
described  as  '  ruinated  and  lying  open  since  the  plundering  thereof  in 
the  last  troubles,'  but  the  precise  date  and  extent  of  this  ruination  is 
not  stated." 

This  is,  however,  certain,  whatever  occurred  to  the  Rectors  of  Peri- 
vale  :  there  were  theological  troubles  in  the  adjoining  parish  of  Ealing. 
Robert  Cooper,  an  Episcopalian,  was  Vicar  of  Ealing  in  the  reign  of 
Charles  I.  and  during  the  Civil  War  ;  but  he  was  ejected  by  the 
Puritans  when  they  obtained  the  upper  hand,  and  Daniel  Cawarthen 
appointed  in  his  place.  The  latter  dying  in  1652,  was  succeeded  by 
Gilbert,  a  Scotch  divine,  who  was  compelled  to  leave  at  the  Restora- 
tion, when  Robert  Cooper  was  reinstated.  Gilbert  went  to  America 
and  died  at  Charleston,  Massachusetts  ;  and  on  his  tomb  were  inscribed 
these  words  : — "  He  was  sometime  pastor  of  the  Church  of  Christ  at 
Ealing,  Old  England,  and  was  the  proto-martyr,  i.e.,  the  first  of  the 
ministers  that  suffered  deprivation  in  the  cause  of  Nonconformity  in 

In  1662  the  Act  of  Uniformity  was  passed,  and  when  the  Feast  of 
St.  Bartholomew  came  round,  the  last  day  fixed  for  clergjonen  to  take 
the  oath,  it  is  a  great  historical  fact  that  more  than  2,000  resigned 
their  benefices  rather  than  do  so. 

There  appears  to  have  been  no  difficulty  in  the  mind  of  Henry 
Wyatt  in  regard  to  the  Act,  as  he  was  for  twenty-two  years  Rector  of 
Perivale,  as  recorded  on  his  tomb,  which  may  now  be  seen  in  the 
churchyard.  Two  years  later,  and  the  "  Conventicle  Acts  "  made  it 
punishable  for  persons  to  be  present  at  any  religious  meeting  other 
than  the  Church  of  England,  as  poor  Richard  Baxter,  the  eminent 
Nonconformist,  then  living  at  Acton,  found  to  his  cost  in  1 669,  when  he 
was  sent  to  gaol,  his  offence  being  that  of  preaching  in  his  own  house 
at  Acton,  in  the  intervals  between  Divine  service  on  Sundays.  Baxter 
relates  that  in  1665,  when  he  was  preaching  in  a  private  house,  a 

*  Lysous. 



bullet  was  fired  in  at  the  window,  and  that  the  same  year  a  lady 
came  in  a  coach  to  hear  him,  of  whom  he  says,  "  her  heart  was  full  of 
malice,  and  she  resolved,  if  possible,  to  do  me  a  mischief."  It  is 
evident  that  bigotry  and  intolerance  were  in  the  ascendant,  and  that 
the  clergy  who  subscribed  to  the  Acts  of  Uniformity,  as  it  seems  likely 
the  Rector  of  Perivale  did,  could  make  the  lives  of  those  of  their 
parishioners  who  openly  showed  a  disposition  towards  Nonconformity, 
to  say  the  least,  very  uncomfortable. 

In  1665  Simon  Coston,  of  Great  Greenford,  gave  the  cover  to  the 
font.      A  tradition  connected  with  him  is  referred  to  later. 

Newcourt  mentions  the  tenths  or  first-fruits*  chargeable  on  the 
Rectory  of  Perivale  as  follows  (onera  hujus  ecclesice)  :  — 

£      s.     d. 

Primitiae 6     13     4 

Decimae 0     13    4 

Proc.  Episc 000 

Proc.  Archid 0       6  10 

Synodalia         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .035 

The  following  table  contains  the  names  of  the  rectors  from  a.d.  1336 
to  1700,  with  the  names  of  the  Lords  of  the  Manor  who  presented  (or 
patrons),  with  other  information  given  by  Newcourt,  who  wrote  in 
1707.  It  is  of  greater  interest  quoted  almost  verbatim  from  the 
"  Repertorium." 

Bishops  of  London 
(Norn.  Reg.  Libb.). 
Baudake,       alias 
Radulphus    de    100 



J  Joh.  de  Gravale,  5  Non.  Mar.  1336  j      The  patron  not  named. 

Simon  de  Sudbury 

/  Ric.  Hauberks 
25  ' 

Com.  Arundel,  ratione  cus- 
todies, Hen.  Beaumont, 
Mil.  in  minori  aestate 

Robert  de    Bray- 

Roger  de  Walden 

I  Will.  Alborowes,  pr.  5  Kal.  Maii  1363 
'  per  mort.  Hauberks 

28     Joh.  Mussendon,  29  Aug.   1384,  per  )  Joh.  de  Bellomont  (Beau- 

mort.  Edmundus  )      mont),  Miles. 

65     Joh.    Chinchgate,    pr.    6   Mar.    1388,  j  ^ .  charleton. 

per  resig.  Mussendon  ) 

139 J  Ric.  Lambard,  pr.  16  Feb.  1395,  per)   1 

resig.  Chinchgate  \ 

159    Joh.  Segrave,   pr.    Maii    1398,  per ) 

mort.  Lambard  j 

Pet  Ward,  cap.   7  Aug.    1405,   per  i 

mort.  Segrave  ) 

\  Will  Hind 

Tho.  Charleton  et  alii. 

*  "First-fruits"  was  an  annual  charge  on  the  revenues  of  rectories  and  some  other 
benefices.     The  payment  ceased  to  be  obligatory  on  the  abolition  of  church  rates. 

E    2 

142  [  Hen.  Bartelot,  pr.  29  Nov.  1473,  per  )    I 

Richard  Hill 



Bishop  of  London  r>     »  ^  , 

;Xom.  Reg.  Libb.).  Rectors.  Patrons. 

37  t  HugoNobull, 20  Jul.  1435, permort.  )   \  -„,..,,    „     ,„  ,,     re 
Robt.  Fitzhugh  Hind        Will   Eastfield     Gives   et 

(  Will.  Come  )      ^Hermanns  Lond. 

29  /  Joh.  Ely.  29  Nov.  1453,  per  resig.  Come    Job.  Middleton  et  alii. 
88     Jac.  G-yfford,  pr.  25  Apr.  1464  Episc.  Lond.  per  Laps. 

Tbos.  Kemp  137  j  Hob.  Hooper,  pr.  14  Nov.  1472,  per  }   \ 

resig   Gyfford  h        h        Arm 

Nov.  1473,  per  t 
resig.  Hooper 
Job.  Taylor,  cap.  7  Ap.  1490,  per  resig.  i  „  ~  ,,  , 

Jac.  Aynsworth,  pr.  27  Jun.  1494,  )   y 

Will.  Maneyard,  cip*  lTSb^JoX        Ric"  S°uthwelL 
per  resig.  Aynswortb  (   J 
R.C.Wareham      2"  j '  Tho.  Marshall,  cap.  19J^b-^per  j    , 

a  /  rro.     it-  „,  A  J  i  -no  !    >  Humfr.  Brown,  Gent. 

Cutbbert  TunstaU      4    Tho-  Ye^^  ^  23  °?fc-  ]f3'£%      \ 
\  resig.  Marshall )   / 

132  /  Job.  Rysdale,  2 Dec.  1540,  permort.  )   \ 
Edmund  Bonner  !  Veysey }   I  Humfr.    Brown,    Mil.    et 

483  j  Patricius  Calyn,  17  Nov.  1559,  per  \    I      Eliz.  ejus  uxor. 

v  resig.  Rysdale  j   ) 

172  /  Joh.  Pyerson,  cl.  8  Oct.  1573,  permort.  )  Henry  Millet. 
Edmund  Gnndall    ^  L^  ^^  d    „  Aug  ™g  {  ^ 

\  mort.  Pierson  j 

Bpuup        „.,  \  Fra-  H°bman,  A.M.,  4  April  1621    j  |  Tho        Hobman,      Gives 
R.  C.  Abbot,  Pars  2o4  J  per  mort.  Osmond  j   >      Lond 

(  Edw.  Read  ; 

T   u      ,  i  Hen.  Wyatt,  A.M.,  27  Jun.  1661,  per  )  T  ,  „  r  „„a    a™ 

J.  Henchman  |    mort.  ^.  Eectoris  (Wyatt  died  in  1638)  |  John  Lane'  Am- 

Henry  Compton  {  Ric'  Ward>  AM>  ^^t^Storis  J  K  MaPlesden>  Gent' 

Ric.  Ward  is  the  present  Rector  (1700). 
Note. — Beard  was  Rector  in  1705.     For  those  presented  subsequently,  see  Chap.  VII. 

Little  is  known  of  the  history  of  any  of  these  old  rectors ;  but 
Newcourt  says  that  a  Pet.  Ward  was  Vicar  of  Broxbourne,  Herts, 
between  1400  and  1436,  and  John  Ely,  Vicar  of  St.  Mary  Aldermary, 
London,  29th  November,  1404,  and  Thomas  Marshall  became  Vicar  of 
St.  Bride's,  London,  30th  January,  1554. 

Mary  Harrison,  widow,  seems  to  have  presented  to  the  living  in 
1720,  and  the  Rev.  Philip  Fletcher  and  his  wife  in  1752,  and  John 
Schrieber  in  1783,  as  the  following  entry  appears  in  the  "Liber 
Regis"  of  1786,*  giving  "  the  value  of  all  ecclesiastical  Benefices  which 
are  now  charged  with  the  payment  of  First  Fruits  and  Tenths,  or 
were  lately  so  charged  " :  "  Perrivale,  alias  Little  Greenford,  R.  Prox. 

*  "Liber  Regis,"  1786.     By  John  Bacon.  Receiver  of  First-fruits. 


Archidiac.  6s.  10d.,  Synods  3s.  5d.,  clear  annual  value  50  pounds. 
Patrons — Mary  Harrison,  widow,  1720  ;  Philip  Fletcher,  clerk,  and 
his  wife,  1752;  John  Schrieber,  Esquire,  1783."  The  manor  and 
advowson  were  sold  in  1767  to  Richard  Lateward,  to  whose  memory 
there  is  a  cenotaph  in  the  church  recording  his  death  in  1777,  and 
his  wife  Ann  in  1779;  and  one  to  Temperance,  wife  of  John  Lateward, 
patron  of  the  church,  1790.  Richard  Lateward  bequeathed  the  pro- 
perty to  John  Schrieber  above  mentioned,  who  exercised  his  right  of 
presentation  in  1783,  and,  having  afterwards  assumed  the  name  of 
Lateward,  was  the  proprietor  and  Lord  of  the  Manor  in  1795.* 

Richard,  son  of  John  (Schrieber)  Lateward,  succeeded  as  Lord  of 
the  Manor  and  owner  of  the  rectorate,  who  presented  his  brother, 
the  Rev.  James  Frederick  Lateward.  Madame  Delpierre,  the  present 
Lady  of  the  Manor,  is  the  only  child  of  the  said  Richard. 

In  the  advertisement  previous  to  the  sale  to  Richard  Lateward, 
the  property  sold  is  described  as  a  manorial  estate,  consisting  of 
farms  valued  at  £485  per  annum,  being  the  whole  parish  except 
a  farm  of  £40  per  annum.  As  hereafter  mentioned,  a  farm,  called 
Manor  Farm,  is  still  not  included  in  the  manorial  estate,  the  latter 
being  now  the  property  of  Lady  Delpierre,  the  descendant  and  heiress 
of  Richard  Lateward,  as  already  mentioned.  Prabably  this  farm  may 
be  identified  with  the  house  called  Besse  Place,  which,  with  certain 
lands  belonging  thereto,  formed  part  of  the  possessions  of  Henry 
Morgan,  in  the  reign  of  James  I.  The  said  Henry  Morgan  was,  in  161 3, 
attainted  for  high  treason,  and  Besse  Place,  with  its  appurtenances, 
were  granted  to  John  Levingston,  subject  to  a  fee  farm  rent  of  forty 
shillings.!    This  grant  was  for  sixty  years,  and  is  further  described  ia 

*  John  (Schrieber)  Lateward  had  three  sons — Richard,  his  heir,  Major  John  Lateward, 
who  died  unmarried  about  fourteen  years  ago,  and  the  Rev.  J.  F.  Lateward,  already  men- 
tioned. Madame  Delpierre  was  thrice  married,  i.e.,  to  Sir  Thomas  Croft,  by  whom  she  had 
one  daughter,  now  Mrs.  Murray ;  secondly,  to  Colonel  Lester  (no  issue),  and  thirdly,  to 
M.  Delpierre,  by  whom  she  had  also  a  daughter,  now  Madame  de  Cormont.  Mrs.  Richard 
Lateward,  who  survived  her  husband,  married  Colonel  Marsack,  of  Caversham  Park,  near 
Reading.  The  Rev.  J.  F.  Lateward  left  three  sons  and  three  daughters  surviving  him,  i.e., 
Thomas  Lateward  (who  married,  in  1849,  Miss  C.  J.  Daniel,  and  had  issue,  the  Rev.  Henry 
Edward  Lateward,  and  one  daughter,  now  Mrs.  Edward  Lock  wood,  of  Kingham,  Oxford), 
the  Rev.  Henry  Douglass  Lateward,  and  Major  E.  Wildman  Lateward.  The  Latewards 
also  held  at  this  time  a  part  of  the  demesne  lands  of  the  Manor  of  Greenford  Magna, 
amounting  to  447  acres.  This  property  was  leased  in  1640  to  Sir  Charles  Gerrart,  Bart. 
The  lease  passed  afterwards,  in  succession,  to  Rupert  Browne  and  John  Bridger.  The 
latter  disposed  of  it  to  a  Mr.  Way,  who  conveyed  it  to  Richard  Lateward.  John  Lateward 
was  the  lessee  in  1795.  t  Fee  Farm  Roll  in  the  Augmentation  Office. 


another  Roll,*  as  a  messuage  called  Besse  Place,  and  lands  belonging 
to  the  same  in  Perryvales,  otherwise  Parva  Grenforde,  also  lands  in 
Harrowe,  late  the  property  of  Henry  Morgan.  In  November,  1618, 
there  is  a  re-grant  of  "  Besse  Place,  with  other  lands  and  tenements 
in  Perrival,  alias  Parva  Grenford,  alias  Cornhill,  and  in  Harrowe  to 
John  Levingston,"  described  as  "  Groom  of  the  Bedchamber,"  with 
discharge  of  all  arrears  of  rent  due  on  the  former.t 

It  is  highly  probable  that  John  Levingston,  Groom  of  the  Bed- 
chamber to  James  I.,  ultimately  obtained  a  grant  of  the  property  in 
perpetuity,  and  it  may  have  been  sold  in  the  Commonwealth,  as  it 
does  not  appear  to  be  noticed  among  the  "  Particulars  of  Fee 
Farm  Rents "  sold  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  Whatever  act  of 
treason  Henry  Morgan  was  guilty  of,  and  whatever  his  fate,  which 
the  writer  has  been  unable  to  ascertain,  it  is  evident  the  Groom  of 
the  Bedchamber  took  advantage  of  circumstances  and  of  his  position 
about  the  person  of  "  Learned  Jamie,"  whose  pedantry  and  favouritism 
is  well  known,  to  get  hold  of  Morgan's  property  ;  perhaps  he  paid  the 
king  for  it,  who,  often  sadly  wanting  money,  sold  baronetcies  for 
£1,000  each. 

As  to  Henry  Morgan's  attainder,  the  simplest  conjecture  is  that  he 
was  a  "  Papist,"  who  might  have  been  mixed  up  with  Robert 
Catesby,  Digby  and  Fawkes  in  their  plot,  though  it  was  all  exploded 
years  before — that  plot  which  the  Irishman  graphically  referred  to  in 
the  verse — 

"  This  is  the  day,  that  was  the  night, 
That  papists  did  conspire, 
To  blow  up  King  and  Parliament, 
With  G-.  U.  N.  pow-dire." 

The  church  at  Perivale  has  suffered  more  than  many  others  from 
the  destruction  of  its  records.  The  register  of  baptisms  does  not 
extend  further  back  than  1707,  and  that  of  burials  commences  in 
1720.  Mr.  Beard,  who  was  rector  in  1705,  stated J  in  answer  to 
questions  relating  to  the  church,  that  it  had  all  the  tithes  and  two 
acres  of  glebe,  but  was  dissatisfied  with  having  had  the  rating  raised 
from  £36,  the  highest  amount  it  had  ever  paid,  up  to  £50.  He  also 
mentioned  a  Polyglot  Bible  and  a  Castell's  lexicon,  as  then  belonging 

•  Pat.  Roll  9,  James  I.,  part  24,  No.  14.  t   "  Calendar  of  State  Papers." 

%  "Notitia  Parochialis,"  Lambeth  MSS.,  fol.  546. 


to  the   church,  to  which  they  had  been  presented  by  an  unknown 

Another  benefactor  mentioned  is  Robert  Cromwell,  whose  tomb  may 
now  be  seen  in  the  churchyard,  and  is  referred  to  later.  He  died 
in  1722,  and  bequeathed  £6  annually  (see  abstract  from  his  will,  page 
114)  for  an  afternoon  sermon  to  be  preached  on  the  first  Sunday 
in  every  month,  but  the  Rev.  James  Mardman,  who  was  rector  about 
Lysons'  time  (1789),  said  that  sum  had  been  several  years  in  arrear, 
and  the  pious  wishes  of  the  donor  have  been  ever  since  disregarded. 
Robert  Cromwell,  as  the  present  rector,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Charles  Hughes, 
informed  the  writer,  also  left  £5  to  be  distributed  annually  in  pro- 
viding poor  widows  with  scarlet  cloaks — but  this  bequest  has  not 
been  carried  out  either  during  his  time  or  for  years  before  he  became 
rector.  This  seems  in  our  days  to  be  a  very  remarkable  bequest, 
but  in  the  later  part  of  the  last  century  the  scarlet  cloak  was  con- 
sidered a  fitting,  as  it  was  a  favorite  part  of  the  dress  of  the  peasant 

John  Gurnell,  to  whose  memory  there  is  a  cenotaph  in  the  church, 
recording  his  death  in  1748,  left  £5  per  annum  to  repair  his 
tomb  and  the  parsonage — John  Gurnell,  who  is  described  on  the 
inscription  as  "  An  Honest  Worthy  Man,"  was  married  to  Ann, 
daughter  of  the  John  Harrison  already  mentioned,  and  appears  to  have 
been  contemporary  with  the  John  Gurnell  who  employed  the  known 
architect  Dance  to  build  him  a  good  house  on  "  the  Green,"  Ealing, 
which  has  since  been  taken  down.* 

*  A  Jonathan  Gurnell,  sen.,  probably  a  near  relative  of  John  Gurnell,  left  by  will,  in 
1753,  £700  3  per  cent,  annuities,  two -sevenths  of  the  interest  thereon  being  for  the  use  of 
the  Ealing  boys'  school,  and  the  remainder  to  be  laid  out  in  coal  or  firing  for  poor  people 
of  the  upper  side  of  the  parish  of  Ealing. 

In  1752  Jonathan  Gurnell,  jun.,  left  by  will  £500  in  Government  security  in  trust  for  the 
benefit  of  the  same  school,  as  well  as  £1,000,  the  interest  of  which  was  to  be  devoted  to  the 
use  of  the  poor  of  Ealing. 

In  1756,  Mrs.  Sarah  Gurnell  gave  £100  to  the  boys'  school,  Ealing. — (Falconer's 
"  Ealing.") 

A  Jonathan  Gurnell  appears  to  have  been  the  proprietor  of  Pits-hanger,  near  Perivale, 
about  1740. — (Lysons.) 


'  •  The  place,  how  well  I  knew  it !  I  had  passed 
Many  a  Sabbath  morning  in  its  midst, 
And  loved  the  sweet  voice  of  its  only  bell 
Better  than  noisy  clang  and  constant  change 
Of  twenty  cathedral  chimes." 

E.  J.  Skinner  ("The  Lily  of  the  Lyn"). 

The  church  is  now  situated  close  to  the  bridge  over  the  Brent,  but 
little  more  than  a  hundred  years  ago  the  little  river  flowed  more  than 
five  hundred  feet  away  from  it  in  a  southerly  direction,  In  Roque's 
Survey  Map,  published  1741-5,  the  old  course  of  the  Brent  is  shown 
bending  to  the  south,  instead  of  to  the  north.  The  former  channel 
is  still  noticeable  by  the  pollard -trees  which  grew  on  the  old  banks, 
as  well  as  by  an  arm  of  the  river,  which  extends  for  a  very  short 
distance  in  the  same  direction,  a  little  south  of  the  rifle  range.  The 
church  was  then  approached  in  two  ways ;  the  one,  from  Apperton 
to  Greenford,  as  at  present ;  and  the  other,  by  a  bridge  near  the 
"  Forty  Oaks,"  from  which  a  road  led  to  it  across  the  field. 

The  church  is  the  most  important  relic  which  remains  of  the  ancient 
hamlet  of  Greenford  Parva,  since  called  Perivale  ;  it  is  so  old  that  its 
proper  name  has  passed  into  oblivion.  It  is  called  St.  James  in  the 
last  ordnance  survey  map,  published  a  few  years  ago,  but  this  name 
has  been  applied  to  it  without  any  authority  whatever.  It  is  not 
known  under  that  designation  by  the  rector  or  any  one  else  in  the 
parish.  The  remains  of  the  old  stained  glass  in  the  chancel,  according 
to  Lysons,  represented  St.  Matthew  and  St.  John,  and  not  St.  James. 
He  does  not  mention  the  apostle  or  saint  to  whom  it  was  dedicated, 
and  he  is  hardly  likely  to  have  overlooked  it.  Newcourt,  who  wrote 
in  1708,  does  not  give  it,  nor  does  it  appear  in  the  ecclesiastical  or 
church  records  ("  Liber  Regis,"  &c.)  that  the  writer  is  aware  of. 

It  rarely  occurs  that  the  patron  saint  of  a  church  is  forgotten,  even 
though  it  may  date  back  to  early  Roman  Catholic  times,   but  the 


fact  may  be  here  chronicled,  as  showing  the  unique  character  of  this 
secluded  hamlet — a  hamlet  which  must  have  been  of  greater  import- 
ance in  ancient  times  than  it  is  at  present,  or  the  church  would  not 
be  there  at  all. 

The  small  portions  of  the  oldest  part  of  the  structure  now  visible, 
as  well  as  what  is  known  of  the  Manor,  with  which  the  living  has 
always  been  associated,  lead  to  the  suggestion  that  it  was  dedicated 
about  the  end  of  the  twelfth  century,  or  early  in  the  thirteenth.  It  is 
therefore  of  high  antiquarian  interest.  It  is,  perhaps,  the  smallest 
church  in  Middlesex,  except  the  church  or  chapel  attached  to  the 
house  called  Twyford  Abbey,  near  Ealing,  which  appears  to  have  been 
extra-parochial,  and  probably  was  originally  intended  for  the  service 
of  two  or  three  Benedictine  monks  and  the  very  few  people  who  lived 
on*  the  land  of  the  demesne. 

The  church  at  Perivale  has  a  short  nave  and  narrow  chancel,  with 
red-tiled  roof,  porch,  and  very  primil  ive-looking  square  wooden  tower 
surmounted  by  a  low  roof-like  pyramidal  spire.  If  it  is  not  the 
smallest  church  in  the  county,  it  is  certainly  one  of  the  most 

The  church  was  restored  in  1875,  under  the  superintendence  of 
Mr.  R.  Willey,  architect,  Ealing,  and  very  little  of  the  oldest  portion 

*  Twyford — anciently,  Tveverde — had  formerly  an  old  manor  house  -which  -was  moated. 
The  "Abbey,"  which  is  now  a  small  mansion,  is  commonly  said  to  occupy  the  site  of  an 
ancient  abbey,  but  there  is  no  record  of  any  such  religious  establishment  having  existed  there. 
Still,  as  the  Manor  was  held  under  the  Canons  of  St.  Paul's,  and  there  was  from  very  early 
times  a  chapel  which  in  12.51  had  two  altars  outside  the  choir,  it  is  possible  there  may 
have  been  a  cell  or  house  for  the  priest  who  served  at  the  altar.  There  was  a  stipulation 
when  Twyford  Abbey  was  let  recently,  that  the  owner  is  bound  to  supply  a  clergyman  of 
the  Church  of  England  for  at  least  six  Sundays  in  the  year.  Twyford  is  the  smallest 
parish  near  London.  In  1 861  it  contained  two  houses  and  eighteen  inhabitants ;  in  187 1  the 
houses  had  increased  to  eight  and  it  had  forty-seven  inhabitants. — ("  Handbook  to  the 
Environs  of  London,"  James  Thorne.)  It  is  said  that  there  is  mention  of  a  resident  priest  at 
Twyford  in  the  early  part  of  the  fifteenth  century  among  the  records  of  St.  Paul's.  The 
following  notice  of  Twyford  occurs  in  Domesday  Book:  —  "In  Tveverde  (in  Ossulton 
Hundred)  Durand  a  canon  of  St.  Pauls  holds  of  the  King  two  hides  of  land — the  land  is 
1  carucahe  and  half — there  are  three  villans  with  half  a  hide  and  half  a  virgate — Pasture 
for  the  cattle  of  the  town— wood  (or  pannage)  for  100  swine.  The  land  was  considered 
worth  thirty  shillings  and  is  now  worth  the  same.  In  the  time  of  Edward  it  was  of  the 
value  of  twenty  shillings.  In  the  same  town  G-ueri  a  Canon  of  St.  Pauls  holds  two  hides 
of  land,  the  land  is  1  carucahe  and  half. — In  demesne  there  is  a  plough  [enough  land  for  a 
plough]  and  another  half  could  be  made  [half  as  much  more  could  be  so  cultivated] .  There 
are  2  villans  with  1  virgate  and  1  border  with  6  acres  and  3  cottagers.  Wood  (or  pannage) 
for  50  swine.  This  land  has  been  valued  at  and  is  now  worth  thirty  shillings,  in  the 
time  of  King  Edward  it  was  worth  twenty  shillings.  This  Manor  lay  and  lies  in  the 
Church  of  S;.  Pauls  in  the  Demesne  of  the  Canons." 


is  now  visible.  Lysons  says  it  is  built  of  flint  and  stones.  Much  of 
the  old  structure  is  now  hidden  beneath  stucco  and  mortar.  Portions 
of  the  original  building,  however,  may  still  be  seen. 

The  Earlj-  Pointed  arch  doorway  in  the  vestry,  formerly  the  entrance 
to  the  church ;  the  recess  for  the  holy-water  vessel  or  stoup,  which  is 
still  preserved,  though  covered  with  the  wainscot ;  the  leper's  win- 
dow, to  be  referred  to  later,  alike  point  to  the  probability  of  the 
church  having  been  erected  about  the  date  assigned,  if  there  was  not 
an  older  edifice  on  this  site.  The  documentary  evidence,  as  we  have 
seen,  confirms  this  opinion.  The  earliest  transfer  of  the  advowson 
which  has  yet  been  discovered,  is  from  Edward  II.  to  Walter  de 
Langton,  Bishop  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry,  in  the  seventh  year  of  his 
reign,  i.e.,  1312,  but  it  is  not  probable  that  it  was  built  by  that  king. 
It  is  far  more  likely  that  it  was  reared  by  the  De  Bohuns,  whose  con- 
nection with  the  Manor  has  already  been  shown,  and  ultimately  for- 
feited to  the  king  before  that  time.  One  of  their  predecessors,  the 
de  Mandevilles,  may  even  have  been  its  founder,  for  the  Norman  lords 
soon  after  the  Conquest  were  very  liberal  in  their  gifts  to  the  Church 
and  in  the  erection  of  churches  on  their  manors. 

In  digging  round  the  foundations  some  years  since  a  silver  penny 
of  Edward  I.  was  found,  which  would  carry  the  evidence  into  the 
thirteenth  century. 

Many  churches  in  England  originated  in  monastic  institutions,  but 
there  is  no  likelihood  of  this  being  the  case  at  Peri  vale.  From  the 
first  the  living  is  alluded  to  as  an  advowson,  which  confirms  the  pro- 
bability of  its  having  been  erected  by  a  lord  of  the  manor.  Was  it 
built  in  fulfilment  of  some  vow  in  time  of  special  danger  ?  or  in  atone- 
ment for  some  crime  committed  by  one  of  the  old  Norman  lords  ? 
Either  suggestion  may  offer  an  explanation  for  the  foundation  of  a 
church  with  a  leper's  window  so  near  London. 

The  church  appears  to  have  been  restored  or  altered  in  the  fifteenth 
century,  as  shown  by  the  ornamentation  of  some  of  the  old  windows 
on  the  north  side,  which  is  of  that  period. 

A  remarkable  fact  connected  with  the  church  of  Greenford  Parva, 
and  which  is  not  generally  known,  is  that  the  chancel  is  not  in  a 
right  line  with  the  nave;  the  former  is  not  due  east  and  west  like 
the  latter.      The  deviation  from  the  straight  line  between  the  two  is 


small,  and  it  was  only  discovered  when  the  inner  roof  of  the  chancel 
was  renewed  in  1875.  It  was  sufficient,  however,  to  cause  some 
difficulty  to  the  contractor.  It  is  generally  believed  that  this  irregu- 
larity is  not  the  result  of  accident,  as  it  occurs  in  some  other  churches ; 
and  it  seems  improbable  that  it  can  have  arisen  from  inaccuracy  in 
making  the  foundation.  Among  other  churches  where  the  same 
deviation  has  been  noticed  is  the  church  at  Farnham  Royal, 

That  some  churches  are  not  truly  oriented  is  very  well  known, 
the  reason  of  which  has  been  conjectured  in  the  following  extract 
from  Hone's  "  Table  Book"  (vol.  i.,  p.  393)  : — "  Captain  Silas  Taylor 
says  that  in  days  of  yore  when  a  church  was  to  be  built,  they  watched 
and  prayed  on  the  vigil  of  the  dedication,  and  took  that  point  of  the 
horizon  where  the  sun  arose  for  the  east,  which  makes  that  variation, 
so  that  few  stand  true,  except  those  built  between  the  two  equinoxes. 
I  have  experimented  some  churches,  and  have  found  the  line  to  point 
to  that  part  of  the  horizon  where  the  sun  rises  on  the  day  of  that 
saint  to  whom  the  church  was  dedicated,"  &c.  Others  have  believed 
that  the  deviation  indicated  the  side  to  which  the  face  of  the  dying 
Jesus  turned  at  the  Crucifixion. 

If  the  first  suggestion  is  right,  and  there  is  an  association  between 
the  saint's  day,  the  festival  of  the  apostle,  &c,  and  the  line  on  which 
the  chancel  of  Perivale  Church  is  built,  and  if  we  knew  fully  the 
symbolism  attached  to  it,  we  might  obtain  a  clue  to  the  unknown 
patron  saint  or  apostle  to  whom  the  little  church  at  Greenford  Parva 
was  dedicated. 

When  we  consider  the  changes  in  the  religion  and  manners  of  the 
people  which  this  church  has  survived,  and  that  its  registers  before 
1707  have  entirely  disappeared,  we  may  be  not  much  surprised  that 
even  its  name  should  have  been  forgotten.  It  is  highly  probable 
that  it  may  have  fallen  into  neglect  and  disuse  more  than  once  in  the 
course  of  its  history  ;  and  it  is,  perhaps,  remarkable  that  any  part  of 
the  old  structure  is  still  left. 

Two  periods  of  English  history  at  least,  as  we  have  seen  in  course 
of  this  chronicle,  were  adverse  to  the  preservation  of  church  relics, 
records,  and  even  the  churches  themselves.  The  one  in  the  middle 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  when  the  reformed  religion  was  gaining  the 


ascendency  and  the  older  faith  losing  ground,  the  struggle  between 
religious  parties  was  bitter  and  prolonged,  and  when  the  Bible  was 
first  read  and  explained  in  the  churches,  historians  tell  us  that  not 
only  was  the  Book  wrangled  over  in  alehouses  and  other  places  of 
common  resort,  but  noisy,  turbulent  people  gathered  round  the 
church  porches,  and  scandalous  brawls  were  frequently  the  conse- 
quence. The  wholesale  seizure  and  frequent  destruction  of  Church 
property  at  this  time  has  been  already  alluded  to. 

Then  taking  the  second  critical  period  of  Church  history,  when  the 
profligacy  or  indifference  of  a  large  section  of  the  Anglican  clergy,  and 
other  causes,  brought  the  reformed  ritual  and  the  Church  itself  into 
discredit ;  and  by  the  aid  of  other  circumstances,  such  as  the  ignor- 
ance and  the  loose  manners  of  the  time,  rendered  the  Reformed 
Church  the  victim  of  puritanical  fanaticism,  and  the  subject  of  violent 
action  and  reaction  of  the  contending  parties. 

Truly  in  all  this  there  is  sufficient  almost  to  account  for  the  church 
of  an  isolated  hamlet  like  Greenford  Parva,  or  Perivale,  having  lost 
its  oldest  records,  and  even  the  name  of  its  patron  saint,  though  no 
doubt  there  were  intervals  in  which  earnest  men,  whether  as  lords  of 
the  manor  or  as  rectors,  sustained  and  repaired  the  building,  and  did 
what  they  could  to  preserve  whatever  belonged  to  it. 

It  is  almost  needless  to  say  that  under  the  fostering  care  of  the 
present  Rector,  the  Rev.  Dr.  C.  Hughes,  the  church  has  for  nearly 
thirty  years  been  kept  in  excellent  order  and  repair. 

The  square  wooden  tower  contains  two  bells,  whose  monotonous 
tones  remind  us  of  the  days  before  the  Reformation.  If  one  of 
them  is  the  bell  drawn  by  Mr.  Farthing,  which  is  probably  the  case, 
it  bears  the  following  legend  :  W.E.  FECIT.  1699,  and  is  two  feet 
in  diameter  at  the  mouth.  On  the  south  side  of  the  tower  is  a  sun- 
dial, reminding  us  of  Charles  Lamb's  curious  paradox  : — "  What  a 
dead  thing  is  a  clock,  with  its  ponderous  embowelments  of  lead  and 
brass,  its  pert  or  solemn  dullness  of  communication,  compared  with 
the  simple,  altar-like  structure  and  silent  heart-language  of  the  old 

The  Rev.  W.  Lisle  Bowles,  the  sonnet- writer  whom  even  Byron, 
in  the  acrimonious  pages  of  his  "  English  Bards,  &c,"  described  as 
"harmonious  Bowles,"  has  written  the  following  on  a  sun-dial,  which 

THE    OLD    CHANCEL   WINDOW,    ETC.,    PEKIVALE    CHURCH,    A.D.    1803. 

[To  face  p.  60. 


may  well  have  had  much  the  same  surroundings  as  the  one  affixed 
to  the  church  with  an  unknown  patron  saint  at  Perivale  : — 

"  So  passes  silent  o'er  the  dead  thy  shade, 
Brief  time  and  hour  by  hour,  and  day  by  day 
The  pleasing  pictures  of  the  present  fade, 
And  like  a  summer's  vapour  steal  away. 
And  have  not  they  who  here  forgotten  lie 
(Say  hoary  chronicler  of  ages  past) 
Once  marked  thy  shadow  with  delighted  eye  ? 
Nor  thought  it  fled — how  certain  and  how  fast." 

According  to  tradition  the  present  tower  has  been  erected  about 
one  hundred  and  fifty  years  ;  but  upon  examining  the  timber  at 
the  western  entrance  of  the  church,  and  in  the  loft  above,  the  rough 
heavy  beams  of  an  older  structure  are  seen,  against  which  the  wood 
of  the  present  tower  appears  to  be  fixed.  An  older  belfry  tower, 
with  a  porch  or  vestibule,  perhaps  in  part  used  as  a  sacristy,  will 
account  for  the  position  of  the  stoup  as  alluded  to  below. 

The  roof  is  covered  externally  with  red  tiles  ;  in  the  interior  it  is 
what  is  called  waggon-shaped,  the  beams  being  of  chestnut  rudely 
fashioned  by  the  adze.  In  altering  and  restoring  the  nave  some 
years  since  the  workmen  were  obliged  to  cut  some  of  the  old  timber 
of  the  roof,  when  the  wood  was  found  to  be  of  great  hardness, 
although  not  oak,  as  previously  supposed  ;  it  appeared  to  have 
become  indurated  by  age.  The  timber  door  which  now  leads  into 
the  vestry  is  old  ;  but  the  best-preserved  relic  of  the  original  Norman 
church  is  the  arched  doorway  now  in  the  vestry,  and  the  leper's 
window,  which  have  before  been  alluded  to.  The  former  is  in  the 
Early  English  or  early  Pointed  style,  which  was  introduced  in  the 
reign  of  Stephen,  a.d.  1135,  and  lasted  until  that  of  Henry  III., 
1216  to  1272,  a  period  of  about  one  hundred  and  forty  years,  when 
it  was  supplanted  in  increased  grace  and  elegance  by  the  true 
"  Pointed  style,"  or,  as  it  has  been  called,  "  pure  Gothic." 

The  breadth  of  the  Pointed  arch,  in  proportion  to  its  height,  indi- 
cates, it  has  been  suggested,  an  early  departure  from  the  circular 
arch  of  the  Anglo-Norman,  while  its  simplicity  also  points  to  the 
probability  that  the  church  of  which  it  forms  a  part  was  erected  in 
the  later  part  of  the  twelfth  century  or  the  beginning  of  the  thir- 
teenth, a  supposition  which,  as  already  mentioned,  seems  to  be 
confirmed  by  the  history  of  the  manor  and  advowson.     This  arched 


doorway  formerly  formed  the  entrance  to  the  church.     The  entrance 
on  the  south  is  comparatively  recent. 

In  the  little  vestry,  and  on  the  right  of  the  old  arch  entering  the 
church  from  it,  is  the  recess  in  the  wall,  in  which  was  placed  the 
stone  vessel  or  stoup  which  contained  the  holy  water.  It  is  now 
hidden  by  the  wainscot,  as,  no  doubt,  are  some  other  portions  of  the 
old  structure  (see  p.  65). 

There  must  have  been  originally  a  sacristy  or  vestibule  to  the 
church  before  the  Reformation,  where  the  more  modern  tower  is  now 
situated,  or,  as  seems  more  probable,  a  more  ancient  belfry  turret 
preceded  the  erection  of  the  present  one.  If  so,  there  would  have 
been  an  outer  door  to  the  church,  and  the  arched  doorway  in  ques- 
tion would  have  formed  the  inner  one,  after  passing  the  vestibule, 
perhaps  with  a  sacristy  attached. 

It  always  has  been  and  is  usual  to  place  holy  water  in  the  sacristy 
or  robing-room  for  the  use  of  the  priests,  and  perhaps  the  stoup  or 
"  benitier  "  may  have  been  so  placed  in  the  wall  as  to  have  served 
both  the  people  on  entering  or  leaving  the  church  itself  as  well  as 
the  priests  in  the  sacristy  ;  but  it  could  not  have  been  placed  outside 
the  church,  which  would  be  the  case  if  there  were  no  tower  or  vestibule. 

In  the  old  church  at  Lustleigh,  Devon,  the  stoup  is  placed  exactly 
in  the  same  position  as  in  Perivale  Church,  and  the  vestibule  or 
sacristy  is  still  preserved  there.  Above  the  arching  timbers  at  the 
west  end  of  the  church  is  a  carved  wooden  screen  on  the  wall, 
divided  into  panels  ;  on  the  centre  one  is  a  carved  crucifix,  with  a 
painting  on  each  side  representing  apostles,  while  half-figures  of 
saints  are  depicted  upon  the  four  smaller  divisions  beneath.  The 
font  is  octagonal  and  of  uncertain  age  ;  but  the  wooden  cover  is  a 
very  interesting  relic.  It  is  handsomely  designed,  and  carved  with 
bold  scrolls  and  other  ornaments  ;  around  the  lower  part  is  the 
following  legend  in  curiously  cut  letters  in  relief : — 

"This  was  the  Gift  of  Simon  Coston,  Gent,  March  26,  1665."  * 

*  There  is  a  monument  to  the  memory  of  'Bridget,  wife  of  Simon  Coston,  in  the  church 
of  Greenford  Magna,  with  date  1637.  "She  is  represented  kneeling  at  a  fald-stool  and 
her  husband  is  in  the  dress  and  attitude  of  a  mourner."  A  Latin  inscription  is  beneath  ; 
the  arms  are  exhibited.  "  Arg.  a  Saltier  vert  on  a  chief  Gules  a  lion  passant  Arg.  for 
Coston — impaling  Gules  on  a  chevron  Arg.  3  etoiles  Sab.  a  canton  Ermine  for  Carr." — 


It  will  be  observed  from  the  extracts  from  the  vestry  minute-book, 
quoted  at  p.  129,  that  this  font  and  cover  must  have  been  removed 
and  completely  lost  sight  of  in  1836  ;  most  probably  they  had  been 
put  aside  as  useless  with  other  lumber  under  the  wooden  tower. 
There  was  a  receptacle  there  for  rubbish  before  that  part  of  the 
building  was  cleared  out  and  the  place  converted  into  a  vestry-room. 

It  is  curious,  and  it  shows  how  the  church  had  been  neglected,  to 
find  the  then  rector  pleading  to  the  vestry  of  Perivale  for  a  new  font 
and  cover,  and  his  motion  negatived,  "  because  there  are  no  christen- 
ings for  parishioners  of  Perivale,  nor  likely  to  be  any." 

The  chancel,  which  is  very  highly  decorated,  is  separated  from  the 
nave  by  an  ornamental  screen,  but  the  latter,  like  many  of  the  decora- 
tions, is  modern  ;  it  is  designed  in  the  style  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  All  the  stained  glass  is  also  modern,  except  a  few  remnants 
of  the  old  glass,  principally  the  heads  of  the  Apostles,  which  have 
been  carefully  worked  into  the  windows  of  the  chancel.  Lysons  says 
there  were  in  his  time  remains  of  the  old  painted  glass  in  the  win- 
dows, and  among  the  figures  those  of  St.  Matthew  and  St.  John. 
Although  the  windows  of  the  chancel  had  evidently  suffered  injury 
when  Lysons  wrote  in  1800  to  1810,  a  carefully  executed  drawing 
in  watercolours,  showing  the  various  tints  of  the  curious  old  stained 
glass,  and  bearing  the  date  1803,  has  been  preserved  (see  Plate). 
The  drawing  has  been  inserted,  with  several  views  of  Perivale  Church 
also  in  colours,  and  inscribed  with  the  date  1794,  in  a  copy  of 
Lysons'  "  Environs,"  which  is  said  to  have  formerly  belonged  to  Mr. 
Douce,  and  which  can  now  be  seen  in  the  Guildhall  Library,  London. 
The  arms  of  some  of  the  lords  of  the  manor,  and  others  whose  monu- 
ments and  memorials  are  in  the  church,  which  will  be  referred  to 
later,  are  beautifully  emblazoned  in  this  copy,  and  there  is  also  inter- 
leaved in  it  an  engraved  portrait  of  Sir  Eobert  Southwell,  Master  of 
the  Bolls  in  the  reign  of  Henry  YIIL,  who  was  probably  a  son  of 
the  Lord  of  the  Manor,  and  presented  to  the  living  in  1494  and 

The  drawings  of  the  church  in  1794  do  not  show  many  alterations 
in  the  exterior  except  the  chancel  window  and  that  end  of  the  build- 
ing. It  is  interesting  to  find  that  parts  of  the  old  manor  house  and 
rectory  may  be  seen  in  one  of  them,  but  this  bears  no  date,  though 





J- r1fc^f2*«&-_  j 




it  must  be  older  than  when  Lysons  wrote,  as  he  says  it  was  then 
pulled  down  (see  Plate).  The  old  chancel  window  was  a  broad 
pointed  arch  with  trefoil  tracery  on  the  outside,  without  long  lights 
and  mullions  beneath  it.  The  most  interesting  relic  of  mediaeval 
antiquity  is  the  stained  glass  of  this  window,  as  shown  in  the 
coloured  drawing ;  it  represents  St.  John  holding  the  book  upon 
which  rests  the  Lamb — the  Agnus  Dei — carrying  the  cross  ;  St.  John 
also  bears  a  long  Calvary  cross,  and  a  small  shield  with  a  cross  hangs 
from  it.  By  his  side  and  forming  with  him  the  two  principal  figures, 
is  St.  Matthew,  supporting  the  book  with  the  left  hand  and  writing 
in  it  with  the  other ;  at  his  feet  is  an  ox's  head,  which  is  generally 
considered  by  mediaeval  writers  to  represent  St.  Luke.  Durandus 
says*  :  "  He  is  compared  to  the  ox  as  being  an  animal  fitted  for  sacri- 
fice," and  because  of  the  two  horns,  as  containing  the  two  testa- 
ments ;  and  the  four  hoofs  as  having  the  sentences  of  the  four 
Evangelists.  Of  this  symbol  the  same  writer  says  :  "  By  this  also 
Christ  is  figured,  who  was  the  sacrifice  for  us  ;  and  therefore  the  ox 
is  painted  on  the  left  side,"  &c,  as  in  this  window.  There  is  a  disc 
between  the  figures  of  the  Evangelists  containing  the  sacred  mono- 
gram, and  above  them  is  a  small  winged  lion,  which  the  same  writer 
says  is  the  symbol  of  St.  Mark.  There  are  also  two  discs  and  an 
ornamental  ribbon  or  scroll  on  their  extreme  right  and  left,  the 
former  having  in  them  representations  of  the  human  face  on  the  one 
hand  and  the  old  English  rose  ornament  in  the  others.  The  acces- 
sories to  the  two  central  figures  are  probabty  taken  either  from  the 
Apocalypse  or  from  Ezekiel.  Beneath  the  window  in  the  drawing 
are  the  usual  tablets  inscribed  with  the  Commandments,  the  wall 
upon  which  they  are  placed  being  painted  green.  The  communion- 
table below  them  is  of  the  simplest  form  and  uncovered  ;  the  three 
boards  of  which  the  top  is  composed  are  apparently  very  roughly 
put  together.  In  the  present  stained-  glass  window  of  the  chancel  are 
representations  of  Christ  in  the  centre,  with  St.  Matthew  and  St. 
John  on  either  side.  Formerly  there  was  painted  glass  in  the  win- 
dows of  the  nave,  which,  it  is  said,  depicted  St.  Mary  and  St.  Joseph, 
&c,  but  as  already  mentioned,  their  place  has  been  filled  with  modern 

*  See  Durandns,  "De  Evangelistis,"  and  '•Rationale." 



Mr.  Farthing  says  in  his  MSS.,  written  in  1845 — 1850,  that  there 
were  then  fragments  of  old  stained  glass  in  the  side  windows,  "  which 
still  remain  to  attest "  the  "  former  glory  "  of  the  church  ;  one  figure 
was  drawn  by  him  and  is  now  reproduced.  It  represents  a  female 
with  book,  and  may  be  intended  either  for  St.  Mary  or  some  Roman 
Catholic  saint ;  it  is  evident 
it  had  then  been  injured  and 
imperfectly  repaired. 

The  oak  reredos  is  well 
carved ;  the  carving,  except 
the  mediaeval  group,  was  gra- 
tuitously executed  by  Mrs. 
Marianne  Powles,  assisted  by 
Miss  Minnie  Hughes,  one  of 
the  rector's  daughters,  from 
the  designs  of  Mr.  G.  A. 
Rogers,  of  Maddox  Street, 
London.  The  side  panels  are 
of  floreated  design,  with 
fruits  ;  and  both  the  design 
and  execution  show  consider- 
able skill.  The  group  of 
figures  carved  in  oak,  fixed 
to  the  centre  panel,  is  old  ; 
it  is  said  to  have  originally 
belonged  to  a  pre- Reforma- 
tion church  in  Essex,  and  was 
probably  carved  four  hundred 
years  ago.  It  represents  "The 
Entombment."  There  are 
seven  figures  in  it  besides  that 
of  Christ.  It  bears  the  impress 
of  age,  and  is  very  well  executed.  The  costumes  pf  the  mourners 
around  the  central  figure  appear  to  be  those  of  the  fifteenth 
or  sixteenth  century.  The  mediaeval  group  and  the  whole  cost  of 
the  reredos  and  re-table  were  presented  to  the  church  by  Harry 
Adrian,  "  in  loving  memory  of  his  mother,  Sarah  Dudley  Adrian,  who 




died  October  16,  1887,"  as  recorded  on  a  small  plate  of  brass.  The 
carved  group  is  surmounted  by  an  ornate  brass  cross,  and  on  the  altar 
is  a  row  of  high  wax  tapers. 

There  is  a  beautiful  tesselated  pavement  in  the  chancel,  also  pre- 
sented, and  dedicated  to  the  memory  of  Cyril  Arthur  Reginald  Willey. 
The  interior  of  the  nave  is  elaborately  embellished  with  consolatory 
and  admonitory  texts  from  the  scriptures,  and  with  pictures  between 
the  stained  glass  windows.  Both  the  paintings  on  the  walls  and  the 
windows  are  memorials  to  members  of  the  congregation  who  have  in 
recent  years  passed  into  the  silent  land. 

Near  the  end  of  the  northern  side  of  the  nave  is  a  picture  of 
"  Christ  in  the  Garden  of  Gethsemane,"  to  the  memory  of  Commander 
Ducat,  R.N.  Others  represent  "  The  Ascension,"  and  "  Christ  removed 
from  the  Cross,"  the  latter  recording  the  death  of  Mrs.  Hughes,  the 
rector's  mother,  in  1881.  One  of  the  handsome  stained  glass  win- 
dows on  this  side  with  Virgin  and  Child,  is  to  the  memory  of  Henry 
Condell  and  his  wife  ;  the  former  was  first  and  second  mayor  and 
first  member  of  the  Legislative  Council  of  Melbourne.  Another, 
depicting  the  Good  Shepherd,  and  Christ  at  the  door,  is  dedicated  to 
the  memory  of  John  Farthing,  who  had  been  a  strong  supporter  of 
the  church.     The  third  is  of  ornamental  design  only. 

Here,  also,  is  the  most  striking  monument  in  the  church.  It  is  in 
marble,  and  by  Westmacott,  an  angel  bearing  the  mortal  to  the 
throne  of  God.     It  bears  the  following  inscription  : — 

"To  the  cherished  memory  of  Ellen  Frances  Nicholas,  daughter  of  the  Rev.  George 
Nicholas,  of  Ealing,  Middlesex,  and  Elizabeth,  his  wife.  Lovely,  accomplished,  most 
affectionate,  and  affectionately  beloved ;  after  a  severe  struggle  of  twelve  weeks  with  a 
painful  illness,  she  was  released  from  suffering  on  the  22  October,  1818,  in  the  21st  year  of 
her  age,  leaving  to  her  sorrowing  relatives  no  consolation  but  the  hope  of  meeting  with  her 
in  a  better  world,  never  to  part  again." 

The  figures  of  the  dying  girl  and  the  angel  are  very  artistically 
grouped  and  skilfully  executed. 

On  the  north  side  of  the  nave  is  a  well-executed  marble  cenotaph, 
with  urn,  to  the  memory  of  John  Gurnell,  and  inscribed — 

"An  honest  and  a  worthy  man,  who  departed  this  life  the  1st  of  August,  1748,  aged 
36  years.  He  married  Ann,  one  of  the  daughters  of  John  Harrison,  Esquire.  Here  lyeth 
also  the  body  of  the  said  Ann,  who  departed  this  life  8th  April,  1750,  aged  38  years." 


In  the  richly  coloured  glass  windows  on  the  south  side  are  memo- 
rials to  the  Rev.  Frederick  Hughes,  1867,  and  A.  A.  and  H.  W. 
Hughes,  1871.  Here,  also,  is  one  of  the  most  touching  monuments 
in  the  church ;  it  is  in  marble,  and  above  it  is  a  weeping  child  or 
angel.     It  is  inscribed  to  the  memory  of — 

"  Lane  Harrison,  Esquire  ;  a  young  gentleman  whose  many  good  qualities  of  heart  and 
mind  rendered  him  an  honour  to  his  family  and  the  delight  of  his  friends,  and  promised  to 
make  him  an  ornament  to  his  country,  hut,  seized  by  the  smallpox,  he  died  on  the  15 
August,  1740,  in  the  26th  year  of  his  age — loved,  honoured,  and  mourned  by  all  who 
knew  him.  In  pious  gratitude  to  his  memory,  this  monument  is  erected  by  his  sisters, 
Mary,  the  wife  of  John  Clerke,  Esq.,  Susanna,  Ann,  and  Sarah." 

He  was  the  son  of  the  lord  of  the  manor  whose  name  has  been  men- 
tioned.    The  sculptor  of  this  beautiful  memorial  was  Thomas  Day. 

On  this  side  there  are  also  several  pictures  depicting  episodes  in 
the  Gospel  narrative,  among  which  is  one  of  the  "  Virgin  and  Child," 
which  is  dedicated  to  the  memory  of  the  present  rector's  late 
daughter  Florence,  the  wife  of  Captain  Alfred  Blaine,  of  South  Africa ; 
she  died  under  particularly  sad  circumstances,  and  was  greatly 
esteemed  and  loved  by  those  who  knew  her. 

On  the  west  wall  is  a  curious  little  tablet  to>  Elizabeth  Bolas,  1793, 
and  a  plain  Gothic  niche  surmounted  by  columns,  and  enclosing  a 
brass  scroll  to  the  memory  of  Charlotte  Farthing,  who  died  in  Novem- 
ber, 1847.  It  is  inscribed  as  erected — "  By  a  sister  and  brother 
— the  last  of  their  race."  In  connection  with  this  there  is  on  the 
floor  of  the  church  a  stone  to  the  memory  of  Agnes,  wife  of  John 
Farthing,  of  this  parish,  1845.  The  monuments  in  the  chancel  will 
be  noticed  later. 

The  frescoes  are  singularly  in  unison  with  the  general  effect  of  the 
interior  of  the  church  ;  at  first  sight  they  recall  the  pictorial  episodes 
in  the  lives  of  the  Romish  saints,  and  still  more  so  "  the  Stations  of 
the  Cross,"  the  last  sad  scenes  in  the  life  of  the  Master.  Both  the 
former  and  the  latter  are  characteristic  of  Roman  Catholic  churches. 

The  visitor  may  still  see  the  window  near  which  it  is  said  "  the 
chaunting  monk  of  old  used  to  sit "  ;  it  is  on  the  south  side  of  the 
chancel.  He  is  more  likely  to  have  been  a  secular  priest  in  pre- 
Reformation  times,  when  the  hamlet  was  of  more  importance  than  it 
is  at  present,  as  we  have  no  evidence  that  a  monastic  institution 
existed  here  at  any  time. 


In  the  dim  religious  light  which  pervades  the  interior  he  may,  in 
fact,  almost  believe  that  he  has  entered  a  church  of  the  older  faith 
and  fancy  that  the  stillness  and  hush  of  the  nave  will  presently  be 
broken  by  the  monotonous  tones  of  the  priest  repeating  the  Latin 
Mass.  His  muttered  "Pater  nosters"  and  the  solemn  "  Ora  pro 
nobis"  of  the  choir  had  the  same  accompaniment  outside  the  church 
as  the  simpler  ritual  of  the  newer  faith,  the  introduction  of  which 
this  old  church  has  seen,  i.e.,  the  subdued  rippling  of  the  river,  the 
wind  sighing  among  the  old  yews  in  the  churchyard,  the  sound  of 
the  trembling  leaves  and  the  sweet  warbling  of  the  birds,  for,  as 
Thomson  wrote — 

' '  To  Him  they  sing  when  spring  renews  the  plain  ; 
To  Him  they  cry  in  winter's  pinching  rain  ; 
Nor  is  their  music  or  their  plaint  in  vain." 

Sometimes  in  the  past  the  birds  have  ventured  inside  the  building, 
for  the  Poet  of  Perivale  whose  MSS.  will  be  referred  to  later,  has 
recorded  that  when  he  first  entered  the  church  in  1845 — "  It  was 
summer-time  and  the  silence  of  the  interior  was  undisturbed  save 
by  the  singing  of  a  redbreast  which,  perched  on  the  head  of  a 
marble  cherub  in  the  chancel,  poured  forth  with  all  the  earnestness 
of  a  genuine  worshipper  its  tribute  of  grateful  praise  and  adoration  to 
that  Almighty  and  Beneficent  Being  who  watches  over  the  lives  and 
provides  for  the  necessities  of  all  his  creatures." 

But  there  is  a  survival  in  the  church  at  Perivale  which  certainly 
carries  us  back  to  the  days  before  the  Reformation.  It  is  the  low 
window  in  the  chancel  on  the  south  side.  This  is  believed  to  have 
been  a  lepers'  window.  It  is  an  aperture  now  covered  with  modern 
stained  glass,  with  slanting  sides,  and  is  at  a  lower  level  than  the 
other  windows.  It  is,  in  fact,  so  placed  that  it  looks  on  the  spot  where 
the  altar  stood  before  the  chancel  was  recently  altered.  These  unfor- 
tunate creatures,  forbidden  to  enter  the  churches,  were  thus  able  to 
obtain  a  view  from  the  outside  of  the  priest  officiating  at  the  altar, 
and  could  so  join  in  that  supreme  act  of  worship  to  the  Roman 
Catholic — the  Elevation  of  the  Host. 

This  window  has  been  called  a  hagioscope,  and  in  its  literal  sense 
the  word  is  not  misapplied.  A  hagioscope  is,  however,  usually 
understood  to  be  an  oblique   opening  in  the  wall  for  the  purpose  of 



enabling  persons  in  the  transept  or  aisles  to  witness  the  Elevation  of 
the  Host  at  the  high  altar.  There  is  simply  a  nave  or  chancel  in  this 
small  church.  The  lepers'  window  at  Perivale  is  perhaps  one  of  the 
best    pieces     of    thir- 

teenth-century work  in 
the  building. 

Leprosy,  which  most 
writers  say  was  intro- 
duced into  England  at 
the  time  of  the  Crusade, 
must  have  been  much 
more  common  when 
this  church  was  built 
than  afterwards,  as  it 
is  said  almost  to  have 
disappeared  at  the  end 
of  the  fifteenth  cen- 

In  the  year  1200, 
the  second  of  King 
John,  it  was  decreed 
at  a  provincial  synod 
held  by  Hubert,  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury, 
"  that  when  so  many 
leprous  people  were 
assembled  that  might 
be  able  to  build  a 
church  with  a  church- 
yard   for    themselves, 

<$£;&  Q^&r^rx 



and  to  have  one  es- 
pecial priest  of  their  own,  that  they  should  be  permitted  to  have 
the  same  without  contradiction,  so  that  they  be  not  injurious  to  the 
old  churches,"  and  "  that  they  be  not  compelled  to  give  any  tithes 
of  their  gardens  or  increase  of  cattle."  "  Edward  III.,  gave  command- 
ment to  the  mayer  and  sheriffs  of  London  to  make  proclamation  in 
every  ward  of  the  city  and  suburbs,  that  all  leprous  persons  should 


avoid  [quit]  within  fifteen  days,  and  that  no  man  suffer  any  such 
leprous  person  to  abide  within  his  house,  upon  pain  to  forfeit  his  said 
house  and  to  incur  the  King's  further  displeasure  ;  and  that  they 
should  cause  the  said  lepers  to  be  removed  into  some  out  places  of 
the  fields  from  the  haunt  or  company  of  sound  people."  Whereupon 
certain  "  lazar  houses  were  built  without  the  city  some  good  distance." 
Some  of  the  places  mentioned  were  at  the  East-end  or  north-east 
of  London,  but  one  such  house  was  at  "  Knightesbridge,  west  from 
Charing  Cross."  There  may  have  been  a  small  settlement  of  these 
afflicted  people  in  the  vicinity  of  Greenford  Parva. 

Perivale  is  true  to  its  traditions  :  the  services  of  its  little  church  at 
present  approach  as  closely  to  the  older  form  of  the  Christian  faith  as 
the  Rubric  permits.  Whether  those  limits  are  sometimes  exceeded  in 
order  to  revive  and  perpetuate  an  ancient  symbolism,  some  parts  of 
which  may  be  traced  back  to  an  origin  far  older  than  Christianity 
itself,  it  is  not  for  the  writer  of  this  record  to  say  ;  it  is  better  that 
these  mysteries  should  be  dealt  with  by  those  more  qualified  to 
express  an  opinion  upon  them.  Some  idea  of  the  services,  how- 
ever, may  be  gathered  from  the  following  extracts  from  a  local 
paper : — 

"  On  Goo'd  Friday,  '  the  ornaments '  of  the  church  were  absent, 
except  the  altar  cross,  and  Eucharistic  candlesticks  and  processional 
cross,  which  were  veiled  in  black  crape,  as  was  also  the  very  hand- 
some carved-oak  illuminated  altar.  On  Easter  Day  all  signs  of  mourn- 
ing had  been  removed,  and  the  altar  was  most  elaborately  decorated 
with  flowers  and  tapers  ;  the  chancel  screen  was  also  covered  with 
flowers  and  an  immense  floral  cross  hung  over  the  chancel  gate,  as 
also  banners.  .  .  .  The  services  were  of  the  full  Ritualistic  character, 
the  whole  of  the  six  points,  viz.,  Eucharistic  vestments,  incense,  wafer 
bread,  mixed  chalice,  eastward  position,  and  altar  lights,  being  (as 
for  many  years  they  have)  observed.  The  Sanctus  bell  was  also 
rung  at  the  proper  place,  and  the  great  bell  tolled  at  the  con- 
secration." * 

The  sacramental  plate  is  modern ;  the  old  church  plate,  which 
appears  to  have  been  of  simple  design,  but  very  handsome,  was  disposed 
of  in  1875,  and  the  present  chalice  and  paten  were  made  in  lieu  of  it. 

*  Middlesex  Coxn/i/  Times.  April  12,  1890. 


The  former  is  richly  ornamented,  with  enamelled  ornaments  in  the 
Renaissance  style.  The  paten  is,  as  usual,  simple.  Happily  the 
dedication  and  armorial  bearings  of  the  donor  have  been  preserved, 
as  the  paten  bears  the  following  quaint  inscription,  with  a  coat-of-arms 
in  a  shield,  in  the  upper  part  of  which  is  a  lion  passant  above  a  cross 
like  that  of  St.  Andrew,  which  are  the  arms  of  Millet : — 

The  "Willing  Donor  Sy  j  N/X/^A    '.-^>        doth  this  gift  intayle- 

To  the  Great  God  ^ '  \  l//^0\)  J;  .*=?•        and  Little  Pery  vale. 

Leo  Crucis  Dux  Salutis.     a.d.  1625. 

beneath  which  is  the  modern  inscription  : — 

"  The  accompanying  Arms  and  Inscription 
was  engraved  on  the  old  Communion  Plate 
of  this  Church,  which  A.M.D  G.  [Ad  Majorem  Dei  Gloriam} 
was  exchanged  for  new,  a.d.  1875." 

Mr.  Farthing  says  in  his  MSS. — "that  in  lowering  the  ground  around 
the  church  several  coins  were  dug  up,  one  of  which  was  the  silver 
penny  of  Edward  I.  in  excellent  preservation,  and  some  few  coins  of 
Charles  I.  The  ground  had  been  considerably  raised  since  the  build- 
ing of  the  church,  as  the  original  pavement  was  found  full  two  feet 
below  the  surface." 

The  attendance  at  the  services  at  Perivale  seems  to  have  been  at 
the  lowest  ebb  in  1844,  when  about  six  or  seven  persons  are  said  to 
have  composed  the  whole  congregation.  Afterwards,  mainly  due  to 
Mr.  Farthing's  alteration  in  many  things  beside  the  music,  in  all  of 
which  the  rector  was  his  coadjutor,  there  was  a  great  improvement  in 
that  respect.  The  following  extracts  from  the  former's  notes  show 
that  the  little  church  had  attracted  to  its  services  "  all  sorts  and  con- 
ditions of  men."  He  says  :  — "  In  a  congregation  of  less  than  forty 
persons  he  has  seen  a  lieutenant-general,  a  post  captain,  an  eminent 
authoress,  a  barrister,  a  clever  pamphleteer,  the  widow  of  a  celebrated 
theatrical  manager,   herself  once   a   skilful  equestrian  performer,    a 


proctor  of  the  Ecclesiastical  Court,  a  gentleman  connected  with  the 
Times,  a  gentleman  farmer,  a  gamekeeper,  a  policeman,  a  servant 
in  livery,  several  ladies  and  agricultural  folk,  a  convicted  burglar  who 
had  been  transported  to  Botany  Bay  and  had  returned  from  there  a 
rich  man  and  reformed  character,  and  the  family  of  a  man  who  was 
executed.  It  would  be  difficult  to  find  a  parallel  for  such  a  small  and 
so  varied  an  assemblage." 

Churchwardens  are  rarely  found  now  among  the  parishioners  of 
Peri  vale,  and  they  are  generally  elected  from  the  adjoining  parish  of 
Ealing.  Some  idea  of  the  unique  character  of  a  vestry  meeting  in 
Greenford  Parva  is  shown  in  the  following  extract  from  the  Middle- 
sex County  Times  of  recent  date.  It  is  unnecessary  to  give  the 
names  of  the  churchwardens  : — "  Perivale  Parish  Church.  Vestry 
Meeting. — On  Thursday  a  vestry  was  held  for  the  election  of  church- 
wardens, when  A.  B.  C.  and  D.  F.  G.  (both  of  Ealing)  were  unani- 
mously elected !  The  only  person  present  was  the  Rev.  Dr.  Hughes 
(in  the  chair),  so  all  the  business  had  to  be  transacted  by  himself; 
the  four  ratepayers  were  unable  to  be  present." 

Truly  the  peace  and  harmony  of  the  scenery  about  the  church  of 
Greenford  Parva  is  reflected  in  its  vestry,  whatever  religious  discord 
may  have  occurred  in  the  parish  in  the  days  which  ushered  in  the 
Reformation,  and  afterwards  when  Cromwell  spared  neither  the 
"  churches  nor  their  ornaments."  There  is  nothing  to  disturb  it  now ; 
no  polemical  strife ;  no  religious  controversies  as  to  High  or  Low 
Church  doctrine  or  practice  which,  in  other  less  favoured  parishes, 
have  set  the  "  people's  warden  "  against  the  "  rector's  warden,"  so 
often  ending  in  unseemly  disturbance  and  bitterness.  Here  the 
rector  pursues  the  even  tenor  of  his  way,  leaves  his  church  open  on 
weekdays,  like  the  churches  of  the  older  faith,  and  it  is  filled  on 
Sundays  with  a  congregation  from  Ealing,  at  least,  in  spring  and 
summer.  But  the  reader  must  not  imagine  this  is  always  the  case  ; 
there  have  been  many  occasions  when  it  has  been  impossible  to  reach 
Perivale  Church  except  in  a  punt,  with  powerful  rowers,  which  are 
not  at  hand ;  for  the  innocent-looking  Brent  rises  in  times  of  flood 
to  the  dimensions  of  a  wide,  roaring  river,  extending  over  the  fields 
for  miles,  and  even  inundating  the  Greenford  Road,  thus  cutting  off 
all  communication  between  the  church  and  Ealing,  and  leaving  the 


only  approach  to  it  on  the  north  side.  When  such  an  incident 
happens  on  Sunday,  Avhich  occasionally  occurs,  the  Rector  of  Perivale 
has  been  placed  in  the  same  position  as  Dean  Swift  at  his  church  at 
Laracor,  who,  Lord  Orrery  says,  once  found  himself  with  no  congre- 
gation save  Roger  Cox,  the  parish  clerk.  The  Dean,  undismayed, 
commenced  the  service  with  much  gravity,  saying,  "  Dearly  beloved 
Roger,  the  Scripture  moveth  you  and  I  in  sundry  places,"  &c. 

An  amusing  incident  is  related  in  reference  to  the  difficulties 
entailed  in  former  times  by  the  flooding  of  the  Brent. 

In  the  early  part  of  this  century  the  rector  at  that  period  under- 
took the  duty  at  Twyford  Church  in  addition  to  that  of  Perivale, 
attending  the  latter  in  the  morning,  and  the  former  in  the  afternoon, 
on  alternate  Sundays,  when  Twyford  had  his  ministrations  in  the 
morning  and  Perivale  in  the  afternoon.  One  Sunday  afternoon  the 
rector  started  from  Twyford  to  Perivale,  accompanied  by  the  parish 
clerk.  It  had  been  raining  hard,  and  the  waters  were  out.  Arriving 
at  the  "  Fox  and  Goose,"  Apperton,  to  partake  of  some  refreshment, 
they  wraited,  hoping  to  find  some  means  of  getting  across  the  flooded 
valley.  At  length,  the  time  was  getting  short,  and  something  must 
be  done  ;  there  were  the  waters  spread  out  before  them,  and  no  ferry 
or  other  means  of  getting  across.  At  length,  the  clerk,  having 
found  a  spot  where  the  current  did  not  appear  so  rapid,  suggested 
to  the  rector  that  he  should  mount  on  his  back  while  he  forded  the 
stream  as  well  as  he  could.  Reluctantly  the  rector,  who  was  not  a 
light  weight,  consented  to  the  proposal,  and  the  clerk  entered  the 
water.  They  had  proceeded  in  this  manner  about  midway  across, 
when  either  the  waters  were  too  strong,  the  clerk  too  weak,  or  the 
ale  they  had  partaken  of  "  stouter  "  than  they  had  reckoned  on  ;  at 
any  rate,  the  result  was  the  same,  the  parson  was  precipitated  into 
the  stream  which,  after  a  little  floundering,  he  subsequently  traversed 
by  wading,  remarking  pathetically  that  he  might  as  well  have  done 
so  at  first. 

The  living  is  a  rectorate  of  the  yearly  value  of  £315,  and  is 
now,  as  previously  mentioned,  in  the  gift  of  Madame  Delpierre.  The 
parish  is  said  to  contain  666  acres,  and  to  have  a  rateable  value  of 

Perivale   affords  a  remarkable  instance  of  the  increased  value  of 


agricultural  land.  The  rents  arising  from  the  manorial  estate  in 
1767  were  £485,  being  the  whole  parish  but  a  farm  valued  at  £40 
per  annum.  In  1836  the  gross  rental  of  the  parish  for  assessment 
w7as£755,  in  1849,  £1,152,  and  in  1882,  £1,741.  The  Rev.  Charles 
Hughes,  LL.D.,  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  is  the  present  rector. 

Was  the  Norman  church  of  Greenford  Parva  raised  on  the  site  of 
an  older  temple  ?  There  are  numerous  examples  in  England  of 
churches  having  been  built  on  the  ruins  of  the  altars  of  the  Latin 
divinities,  and  on  those  of  the  successive  worshippers  of  Woden  and 
Freya.  The  cathedral  at  Winchester  is  said  to  have  been  reared  on 
both/  each  built  on  the  relics  of  the  older  faith  as  they  followed  in 

The  only  evidence  of  a  still  more  ancient  cult  which,  as  far  as 
the  writer  knows,  has  been  met  with  in  the  vicinity  of  Perivale  is  of 
remote  date,  and  is  presented  by  the  six  or  seven  Roman  cineraria, 
or  urns  for  containing  the  ashes  of  the  dead,  and  some  other  objects 
discovered  recently  on  "  the  Mount  "  overlooking  the  Brent  Valley.* 
Looking  to  the  probability  of  Greenford  Parva  having  been  peopled 
by  Saxons  and  having  been  of  more  importance  in  mediaeval  times 
than  it  is  at  present,  as  indicated  by  the  church  having  been  built 
certainly  as  early  as  the  thirteenth  centur}',  and  probably  earlier,  it 
is  not  unlikely  there  may  have  been  an  older  structure  still,  erected 
of  more  perishable  materials,  even  in  the  Saxon  period. 

The  church  at  Perivale  is  like  the  earliest  churches  in  England 
which,  as  Britton  says,  consisted  of  one  pace  or  room  with  the  eastern 
part  divided  off  by  rails,  and  often  by  an  arch,  forming  the  bema,  or 
chancel,  the  latter  term  being  derived  from  chancelli,  the  "  curiously 
and  artificially-wrought  "  rails  in  the  form  of  network,  which  formed 
the  line  of  separation. 

The  primitive  Saxon  churches  are  commonly  said  to  have  been 
small  and  badly  constructed  ;  "  some  of  them  unquestionably  were  of 
wood,  and  were  so  imperfect,  even  in  the  days  of  Alfred,  that  the 

*  This  discovery  of  a  mortuary  site  of  the  period  of  the  Roman  supremacy  is  not  sur- 
prising as  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  Brent  Valley  and  much  of  the  country  of  north-west 
Middlesex  became  completely  subdued  and  settled  at  an  early  period  of  the  Roman  occupation. 
The  camp  of  the  Trinobantes  was  on  Kingsbury  Hill  until  it  was  taken  and  held  for  a  long 
time,  by  the  Romans,  of  whom  many  relics  have  been  found.  Afterwards  it  became  a  Saxon 
town.  Subsequently  the  old  church  was  built  on  the  site  and  some  Koman  bricks  used  in 
the  structure. 


candles  used  in  them  were  often  blown  out  by  the  wind."  *  There 
can  be  no  doubt,  however,  that  some  of  the  early  churches  "  were 
both  costly  and  extensive." 

Churches  had  become  numerous  in  England  at  the  time  Domesday 
Book  was  completed,  a.d.  1086,  and  there  are  grounds  "for  believing 
that  the  number  existing  at  or  soon  after  the  Conquest  amounted 
to  considerably  more  "  than  the  1,700  mentioned  in  that  record 
(Britton).  It  is  very  remarkable  that  among  the  1,700  churches  so 
mentioned,  "222  were  returned  for  Lincolnshire,  243  from  Norfolk, 
and  364  from  Suffolk  ;  whilst  only  1  is  noted  from  Cambridgeshire, 
and  none  in  Lancashire,  Cornwall,  or  even  Middlesex,  the  seat  of  the 
metropolis."  f 

The  parish  churches  were  mostly  built  by  lords  of  manors.  + 

*  Britton's  "  Dictionary  of  Architecture  and  Archaeology  of  the  Middle  Ages."  "The 
first  stone  church  is  stated  by  Bede  to  have  been  built  on  the  borders  of  England  and 
Scotland  by  Bishop  Nynias  in  the  sixth  century,  and  he  says  it  was  not  usual  among  the 
Britons.  They  call  the  place  '  Candida  Casa,'  '  the  White  House.'  " — (Bede,  "  Eccles.  His.," 
edition,  17^3,  p.  185,  quoted  by  Britton.) 

t  Append,  to  2nd  Report,  Com.  Pub.  Rec,  p.  456. 

+  "Arch.  Antiq."  vol.  v.,  p.  125. 


"  Dust  are  our  frames,  and  gilded  dust  our  pride — 
Looks  for  a  moment  whole  and  sound, 
Like  that  long-buried  body  of  the  king 
Found  lying  -with  his  urns  and  ornaments, 
"Which,  at  the  touch  of  light,  an  air  from  heaven, 
Slipt  into  ashes  and  were  found  no  more." — Tennyson. 

Some  of  the  monuments  in  the  church  have  already  been  referred  to, 
the  most  ancient  of  these  being  the  brasses  to  the  memory  of  Henry 
Mylett,  his  two  wives  and  fifteen  children  ;  it  bears  the  date  a.d.  1500. 
There  are  in  all  five  small  brasses  in  good  preservation.  The  centre 
one  is  the  figure  of  Mylett,  with  that  of  his  wife,  Alice,  on  one  side, 
and  Joan  on  the  other ;  beneath  which  are  the  presentments,  on  sepa- 
rate brasses,  of  the  three  sons  and  six  daughters  of  the  former,  and 
the  three  sons  and  three  daughters  of  the  latter.  The  engraved  detail 
of  all  the  figures  is  well  preserved,  and  the  costumes  of  the  period 
(Henry  VII.)  are  so  well  shown  as  to  render  the  monument  of  great 
interest.  A  brass  plate  is  inserted  between  the  two  groups  of  figures, 
which  contains  the  following  partly  obliterated  inscription  :  — 

"  Orate  pro  ambus  Henrici  Mylett  ac  Aliciae  et  Johannse  Uxor  sua  ;  qui  quidem  Henricus 
obiit  V  die  Februar.     Anno  ddmmillia  VC.  quorum  anibus  [(?)]  p.picietur  Deus — ame." 

The  brasses  are  on  the  floor  near  the  altar  railing. 

On  the  south  side  of  the  chancel  is  a  plain  but  handsome  monu- 
ment, surmounted  by  armorial  bearings,  and  inscribed  as  follows  : — 


' '  Here  lyes  interred  ye  body  of  Elizabeth  Lane,  the  late  wife  of  John  Lane  the  elder 
Esquire ;  *  she  was  the  eldest  daughter  of  G-eorge  Millet  Esquire,  deceased,  some- time 
Patron  of  this  church,  and  of  Joane  his  wife,  who  lye  interred  in  this  place.  She  let  her 
last  breath  at  Agmondesham  in  Buckinghamsheire,  where  she  dwelt  with  her  said  Husband, 
ye  20  April  1655  and  of  her  age  62  and  aboute  six  weekes. 

*  Arms :  Lane  impaling  Arg.  on  a  fesse  Gul.  between  three  dragons'  heads,  erased  Vert, 
for  Millet. — (Lysons.) 

frame'  obift  ij  tafttott  flsoo  ffiTgliolf  pr  arofopmt  Of?" 


[To  face  p.  78. 


' '  She  lived  a  most  religious,  godly,  virtuous  life, 
She  was  a  most  faithful,  loving  and  chaste  wife. 
She  was  to  the  poore  charitable 
To  her  neighbours  helpfulle 
Friendly  and  courteous  to  all. 
Just  in  all  her  affayres 

Honestly  and  commendably  prudent  and  provident, 
Many  daughters  have  done  virtuously 
But  she  excelled  them  all. 

"  It  pleased  God  to  exercise  her  with  much  affliction  of  Body  and  then  through 
many  tribulations  and  patient  suffering  to  bring  her  to  his  Kingdome. 

' '  Hanc  obiisse  putem  minime  quo  tarn  bene  vixit, 
Non  obiit  nee  obire  potest  sed  vivit  in  iEvum 
Cum  Christo  Caelis  in  Terris,  ore  Bonorum." 

Beneath  this  is  the  unpretentious  monument  to  the  memory  of 
Richard  Lateward,*  Lord  of  the  Manor.  &c.,  who  died  December,  1777, 
and  his  wife,  Anne,  obit  February,  1779. 

A  similar  memorial  records  the  death  of  Mrs.  Temperance,  wife  of 
John  Lateward,  "  Patron  of  this  Church,"  who  died  in  October,  1790  ; 
with  the  epitaph — "  She  lived  beloved  and  died  regretted." 

On  the  same  side  in  the  chancel  is  a  slab  which  records  the  death, 
in  1823,  of  Frederick  Gray  Kirby  Lateward,  and  of  the  Rev.  John 
Douglas  Lateward,  who  died  in  1846,  the  sons  of  the  Rev.  James 
Frederick  (Rector  of  Perivale)  and  Mary  Lateward. 

On  the  south  side  of  the  chancel  is  the  oldest  memorial  in  the 
church,  with  the  exception  of  the  Mylett  brasses.  It  is  a  handsome 
marble  monument,  with  a  small  shield-of-arms  at  the  top  and  a  very 
curious  figure,  robed  for  the  grave,  in  bas-relief,  beneath  it,  and  this 
remarkable  inscription  : — 

' '  Here  lyeth  the  body  of  Joane  Shelbury  late  ye  wife  of  John  Shelbury  of  Peryvale, 
Gent,  who  deceased  the  21  Novr.  1623  at  the  age  of  57  yeares  ;  after  she  had  lived  with 
him  23  yeares  in  faithfull  "Wedlock  and  had  borne  to  him  5  children,  viz.,  2  sons  and  3 
daughters;  having  been  formerly  married  to  George  Millet,  Gent.,  Lord  of  this  Toune  and 
Patron  of  this  Church,  by  whom  she  had  likewise  5  children,  viz.,  3  sons  and  2  daughters. 
She  was  to  them  both  a  loyall  and  Lovinge  "Wife.  To  her  Children  a  kinde  and  tender  mother  ; 
to  her  Friends  true  and  faithful ;  in  the  Government  of  her  house  and  Family  wise  and 
provident.    To  the  "World  just  and  upright.  To  God,  both  in  Life  and  Death,  an  humble  and 

*  Arms:  Arg.  on  a  fesse,  Gul.  between  three  cinque  foils  Az.,  a  goat  between  two 
pheons  or,  quartering  or  three  martlets,  Sab.  on  a  chief  Az.  a  lion  passant  Arg.  on  an 
escutcheon  of  pretence,  or  a  lion  rampant  ducally  crowned  Gules, — (Lysons.) 


devoute  servant,  yielding  her  Soule  into  his  mercif ull  Hands  most  willingly  and  cheerefully 
as  to  her  only  Redeemer  and  Saviour. 

* '  She  was  descended,  by  her  Father,  from  the  antient  Family  of  Pites  of  Hartinge,  in  the 
County  of  Sussex,  and  by  her  mother  from  the  "Wbrshipf  ull  Family  of  Saunders  of  Flanch- 
ford,  in  the  County  of  Surrey." 

"  Her  virtues  live  and  shall  doe  Still, 
Though  Death  on  Her  hath  wrought  his  will." 

This  lady,  whose  monument  presents  us  with  an  example  of  mixed 
feminine  virtue  and  family  pride,  had  been  the  wife  of  George  Millet, 
lord  of  this  "  towne,"  to  whose  memory,  Lysons  says,  "  there  was 
lately  a  brass  plate  on  the  floor  of  the  chancel  recording  his  death  in 
1600."  It  is  evident  the  brass  had  been  hidden  on  Lysons'  visit,  or 
else  it  had  been  since  replaced,  as  Mr.  Farthing  says,  in  1845  : — "  The 
different  slabs  in  the  chancel  show  there  were  formerly  many  brasses 
in  the  church  but  only  two  now  remain  ;  the  one  consists  of  a  bearded 
figure  in  the  costume  of  the  period,  with  hands  uplifted  in  the  attitude 
of  prayer,"  which  he  has  carefully  drawn,  and  is  now  reproduced  (see 
next  page),  and  the  other  the  group  of  figures  (Henry  Mylett  and 
his  family).  A  brass  representing  a  "  civilian  "  is  also  described  by 
Haines,*  as  being  in  this  church. 

Near  Mrs.  Shelbery's  monument  is  the  handsome  memorial  in 
marble  to  Thomas  Lane,  Lord  of  the  Manor  and  Patron  of  the  Church 
of  Perivale.  Three  shields  containing  arms  are  carved  in  relief  on  each 
side  of  it,  and  an  oval  one  at  the  top.f  The  inscription  runs  as 
follows  : — 

"  M.S. — "Within  this  place  lye  buried  the  Bodye  of  Thomas  Lane  Esquire,  late  Patron  of 
this  Church,  an  Ancient  Bencher  of  the  Inner  Temple  London  and  Jane,  his  second  wife, 
eldest  daughter  of  John  Duncombe,  of  East  Cleydon,  in  ye  the  County  of  Bucks  Esquire,  and 
Ursula,  a  younger  daughter  of  ye  said  John  Duncombe,  first  wife  of  John  Lane  of  this 
parish  Esquire,  and  Katherine,  daughter  of  Thomas  Gates  Esquire,  deceased,  late  one  of 
ye  Barones  of  ye  Exchequer,  second  wife  of  the  said  John  Lane.  Thomas  Lane  died  the 
31st  Deer.,  1652,  aged  70  years;  Jane,  the  23  August  1652,  aged  42  ;  Ursula,  the  31st 
August  1647,  aged  31  ;  and  Katherine,  the  28th  of  August  1652,  aged  22." 

*  "  Manual  of  Monumental  Brasses,"  Rev.  Herbert  Haines. 

t  Arms  :  I. — Per.  pale  Az.  and  Gules,  three  saltiers  Arg.  impaling  per.  chevron  invected 
Gul.,  and  Arg.,  3talliots'  heads  erased  and  countercharged  for  Duncombe;  Thos.  Lane 
having  married  Jane,  daughter  of  Duncombe,  of  Berks.  II. — Lane  impaling  Duncombe  as 
before.  John  Lane  married  Ursula  Duncombe,  &c.  Arms :  III. — Lane,  impaling  per. 
pale  Gul.  and  Az.,  three  lions  rampant  Or,  for  Gates. — (Lysons.) 


The  annexed  carmen  lugubre  is  beneath  it  : — 

"  Horrida  lethiferse  deportant  tela  sorores 
Cum  nulli  parcant  sit  licet  ipse  bonus 
Est  nihil  in  vita  firmum,  monumenta  peri- 

Mors  etiam  saxis  nominibus  que  venit 
Forma  bonum  fallax  nocet  empta  dolore 

Gloria  vana,  Decus  mobile,  vita  brevis, 
Eu  !   manet  ex  toto  nihilum  de  pulvere 

Factus,  et  ex  vivo  corpore  truncus  iners 
Tellus,  prima  Parens,  servat  deforme  ca- 
daver ; 
In  que  suum  recipit,  quod  deditante  suum 
Ad  licet  in  msesto   tumulentur  membra 

Mens  tamen  intravit  gaudia  summa  Dei." 

The  author  of  the  MSS.  already 
alluded  to  has  rendered  the  above 
into  English  blank  verse,  as  fol- 
lows : — 

"  On  all  sides  the  Fates  cast  their  envenom' d 

Dealing  Death  around  and  sparing  none, 
Not  even  the  Deserving.    Life  has  no  cer- 
The    monumental    records    of    the    Past 

crumble  away ; 
The  names  of  the  buried  Great,  and  the 

very  marble 
On  which  they  are  graven,  by  their  decay 
Bears  witness  to  the  awful  and  continued 

Of  Destruction  !  the  appearance  of  Good 

Is  too  oft  deceitful ;  and  the  pleasures  of 

Are  purchased  dearly  by  an  age  of  misery — 
Mark,  too,  the  hollowness  of  Pomp  and 

The  vanity  of  Rank  !  the  transitoriness  of 

Behold  !    from    all   these   there    remains 

to  us 


Absolutely   nothing  !    Dust  to  its  kindred 

Doth  return.     The  Body,  which  but  now 
Bounded  with  life  and  animation. 



Is  now  devoid  of   Motion  —  a  senseless 

corse ! 
Earth  !  the  first  Parent  of  our  Race, 
Once  more  accepts  the  guardianship, 
And  to  her  own  cold  breast,  from  whence 

it  came, 
Enfolds  the  foul  and  loathsome  body  ! 

But  tho'  in  the  dark  and  mournful  sepulchre 
The  corruptible  remains  and  earthly  forms 
Of  the  past  races  of  Mankind  are  collected, 
Yet  hath  the  Soul  taken  its  own  lofty  flight 
And  participates  in  the  unutterable  joys 
Of  the  Eternal !  " 

On  the  north  side  of  the  chancel  there  is  a  marble  monument  with 
shield- of-arms,  with  the  following  inscription  : — 

"  M.S. — Near  this  place  lies  the  Body  of  John  Harrison  Esquire*  who  departed  this  life 
the  viii  day  of  June  a.d.  17*22  aged  48  years,  leaving  behind  him  1  son  and  7  daughters, 
a  mournful  widow,  a  sorrowful  mother,  and  a  good  name  ;  for  he  was  a  good  husband,  a 
kind  father,  a  dutiful  son,  a  good  Christian  and  an  honest  gentleman ;  zealous  for  ye 
interest  of  ye  Church  of  England  and  respectful  to  her  orthodox  clergy. — To  the  pious 
memory  of  her  loving  husband  this  monument  is  erected  by  Elizabeth  Harrison. 

"  Here  lyeth  also  the  Body  of  the  above-said  Elizabeth  Harrison,  in  whom  the  register  of 
her  husband's  virtues  was  preserved,  adorned  with  such  sweetness  of  disposition  and  gentle- 
ness of  manners  as  rendered  lovely  every  action  of  her  life  ;  and  in  death  did  not  forsake 
her. — She  departed  hence  in  expectation  of  a  better  Life  the  29th  of  October,  1756,  aged  70 

Beneath  this  is  a  small  ornamental  slab,  surmounted  by  a  shield-of- 
arms,  to  the  memory  of  Richard  Late  ward  Lateward,  eldest  son  of  John 
Late  ward,  who  was  born  28th  June,  1782,  and  departed  this  life  4th 
October,  1815.  "  This  monument  of  affection  and  regret  was  erected 
by  his  widow."  Beneath  which  is  the  following  verse  from  the  103rd 
Psalm : — 

"  As  for  man,  his  days  are  as  the  grass  ;  as  a  flower  of  the  field,  so  he  flourisheth.  For 
the  wind  passeth  over  it,  and  it  is  gone,  and  the  place  thereof  shall  know  it  no  more." 

Lysons  says  there  were  in  the  chancel  in  his  time  memorials  to  John 
Clerke,  Esq.,  1792, t  and  Martha,  wife  of  James  Wildman,  1789. 

In  the  churchyard  there  is  a  yew-tree  which  is  probably  nearly  as 
old  as  the  church  !  Three  equally  old  yews  are  in  the  rectory  garden  ; 
there  is  a  tradition  that  they  were  planted  in  the  reign  of  one  of  the 
Edwards !  It  is  not  improbable  that  they  may  date  from  the  time 
when  it  was  customary  to  preserve  the  yew  for  making  bows  ;  in  fact, 
it  is  said  there  was  in  early  times  a  royal  mandate  that  yew-trees 
were   to  be  planted  in  every  churchyard,  so  that   every  yeoman  or 

*  Arms :  Or  on  a  cross  Az.  5  pheons  of  the  field,  a  chief  of  the  second  impaling  Sab.  a 
fesse,  embattled  Erm.  between  3  crescents  Argent. 

t  Arms :  Arg.  on  a  bend  Gul.  between  3  pellets,  as  many  swans  proper  impaling  Sab. 
2  bars  and  in  chief  a  talbot  passant  Arg.. 


village-man*  in  the  neighbourhood  thereof  might  be  able  to  procure, 
on  emergency,  the  wood  of  the  yew  needed  for  his  weapon.  The 
author  of  "  Rookwood  "  says  : — 

"  From  it  were  fashioned  brave  English  bows, 
The  boast  of  our  isle  and  the  dread  of  its  foes. 
For  our  sturdy  sires  cut  their  stoutest  staves 
From  the  branch  that  hung'  o'er  their  fathers'  graves  ; 
And  though  it  be  dreary  and  dismal  to  view, 
Stanch  at  the  heart  is  the  churchyard  yew." 

Lysons  mentions  the  following  as  among  the  tombs  in  his  day  ;  and 
most,  if  not  all  of  them,  may  be  seen  now  : — Henry  Wyatt,  twenty- 
two  years  rector,  1683;  Elizabeth  Greenhill,  1696;  George,  son  of 
William  Greenhill,  Esquire,  of  Abbots  Langley,  1706  ;  William  Brown- 
bill,  thirteen  years  rector,  1719  ;  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Sir  Peter  Colle- 
ton, Bart.,  "  who  died  at  her  house  at  Eling,"  1721.  This  old,  curiously- 
carved  monument  now  presents  a  very  remarkable  appearance ;  an 
ash,  an  elm,  and  a  hawthorn — trees  of  a  considerable  size — besides 
parasitic  plants,  are  growing  within  the  railings  which  encompass  the 
tomb,  disturbing  and  rending  the  stonework  ;  the  ash  completely 
envelops  a  part  of  the  iron  railing,  bending  the  metal  as  it  has  grown 
as  though  it  had  been  a  piece  of  wire  ;  the  tree  has  also  twisted  another 
part  of  the  ironwork  in  a  very  curious  manner ;  the  hawthorn  seems 
likely  to  do  the  same.  The  ironwork  thus  contorted,  and  the  tomb 
itself,  seemingly  in  process  of  being  destroyed  by  the  trees,  present  a 
singularly  picturesque  appearance.  The  silent  trees  have  triumphed 
over  man  ;  and  taught  him  how  vain  are  his  efforts  to  make  a  monu- 
ment that  shall  long  endure.      (See  Plate.) 

The  figures,  &c,  sculptured  on  the  sides  of  this  table  tomb  are  well 
executed,  and  the  design  they  embody  is  remarkable.  The  stone  is 
now  nearly  covered  with  an  almost  impenetrable  mass  of  vegetation  on 
two  sides,  but  about  forty -five  years  ago  the  bas-reliefs  were  visible. 
On  the  southern  and  northern  tablets  there  are  angels  in  each  corner 
lifting  the  curtain  of  death,  at  the  base  of  which  are  skulls.  On  the 
western  side  is  a  curious  combination  of  symbolic  objects.  Resting  on, 
and  supported  by,  some  other  books  with  book-markers,  is  a  large  one, 
evidently  intended  for  the  Bible,  with  an  inkstand  and  a  large  pen  in 
it.      Surmounting  the  centre  volume  is  a  pair  of  large  wings,  above 

*  Yeoman  is  derived  from  ga,  a  village  (Gothic,  gawi ;  German,  gau),  and  "  man." 

G  2 


which  is  an  hour-glass — no  doubt,  emblematic  of  the  flight  of  Time — ■ 
and  a  crown  is  placed  upon  the  hour-glass.  On  the  eastern  side,  as 
well  as  upon  the  large  slab  or  table  of  the  tomb,  is  the  arms  of  the 
Colletons,  i.e.,  three  stags'  heads  *  with  scrolls. 

Even  in  1845,  says  Mr.  Farthing  in  his  notes,  the  funeral  of  this 
lady  was  the  subject  of  remark,  and  aged  persons  in  the  parish  said 
their  grandparents  spoke  of  the  funeral  procession  as  being  more  than 
a  mile  long,  so  great  was  the  respect  shown  for  the  deceased.  The 
monument  was  then  called  the  "  Maiden's  Tomb,"  and  besides  the  ash, 
elm,  and  whitethorn,  an  elder  and  a  wild  pear-tree,  as  well  as  creep- 
ing plants  were  growing,  as  it  were,  from  the  very  stone  of  the  tomb. 
"  They  have  not,  it  is  said,  been  regularly  planted  there,  but  it  is  con- 
jectured that  birds  have  from  time  to  time  dropped  the  seeds,  which 
have  vegetated."  A  weird  tradition  was  extant  about  the  middle  of 
this  century  concerning  the  "  Maiden's  Tomb."  According  to  the 
writer  of  the  MSS.,  it  was  to  the  effect  that  the  stones  of  the  monument 
were  in  the  first  instance  riven  by  the  ghost  of  the  deceased  lady  as 
she  rose  from  it  in  obedience  to  the  magic  arts  and  incantations  of  a 
friend  of  her  brother,  a  man  skilled  in  necromancy  and  having,  like 
Manfred,  "  the  power  of  bringing  back  the  spirits  of  the  dead."  The 
lady  appeared,  when,  it  is  said,  "  the  solid  stones  of  the  tomb  began 
to  crack  and  split  with  a  loud  noise  "  ;  but,  alas  !  only  to  reproach  the 
brother,  at  whose  instigation  his  friend  had  called  her  forth,  with  being 
the  indirect  cause  of  her  death,  brought  on  by  grief  at  the  infidel  opinions 
he  held,  and  to  exhort  him  to  repentance  for  his  crimes,  &c. 

Nearer  the  church  is  the  tomb  of  Robert  Cromwell,  1723 ;  here  are  said 
to  repose  the  ashes  of  a  nephew  or  some  other  relative  of  the  Protector. 
A  reference  to  the  extracts  from  the  register  at  Perivale  shows  that 
others  of  the  Cromwell  family  are  also  buried  in  this  churchyard.  The 
geologist  will  be  interested  in  examining  the  large  uppermost  slab  of 
carboniferous  limestone  of  this  tomb,  as  it  shows  a  fine  section  of 
Orthoceras  twelve  or  fourteen  inches  in  length  ;  it  has  been  well 
weathered,  and  exhibits  in  a  very  marked  manner  the  chambers  or 
septa  into  which  the  shell  is  divided,  like  its  kindred,  the  ammonite, 
nautilus,  and  other  mollusca  of  the  order  Cephalopoda. 

*  In  1725,  an  Elizabeth  Colleton  left  a  benefaction  of  £100  to  the  Boys'  School,  Ealing. 
—{Falconer's  "  Ealing.")  She  was  descended  from  an  old  Devonshire  family  bearing  the 
same  arms  as  those  on  the  tomb,  i.e.,  3  stags'  heads,  couped,  pper.,  with  a  similar  stag's 
head  for  the  crest. 


The  other  memorials  mentioned  by  Lysons  are  to  John  Arnold, 
of  Furnival's  Inn,  Gent.,  1730;  Matthew  Cockett,  "Citizen  and  Gold- 
smith," 1731  ;  Captain  John  Johnson,  1767,  which  may  still  be  seen. 
Of  the  older  tombs  which  are  also  still  preserved  are  those  of  Samuel 
Day,  Citizen,  and  Armourer  and  Brazier,  1756  ;  Isaac  Stanton, 
Citizen  of  London,  1724  ;  Mary  Tuckfield,  1735  ;  Richard  Badcock 
Shury,  rector  of  the  parish,  1789  ;  James  Maidman,  over  twenty 
years  rector,  1809  ;  Dorothy,  wife  of  Richard  Ems,  citizen,  1753  ; 
Jane,  wife  of  Edward  Bedwell,  1806. 

Among  the  later  memorials  in  the  churchyard  is  the  large  one 
to  Lucy,  wife  of  John  Lateward,  1806;  and  John  Lateward, 
1814;  and  their  daughters  Lucy,  1817,  Frances  Mary,  1846,  and 
Julia  Elizabeth  Lateward,  1822  ;  also  James  Wildman  Charles,  son  of 
the  Rev.  James  F.  and  Mary  Lateward,  1823.  The  Rev.  J.  F.  Late- 
ward was  Rector  of  Perivale  for  about  fifty  years,  and  was  the 
immediate  predecessor  of  the  present  rector.  On  account  of  advanced 
age  and  infirmity,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Giles  was  curate  in  charge  for  some 
years  previous  to  1860.  Dr.  Giles  was  the  author  of  several  works 
intended  for  higher  education. 

A  beautifully  carved  upright  stone,  with  the  inscription,  "  A 
kindly  tribute  to  departed  worth,"  marks  the  grave  of  Charlotte 
Alston  Pinkerton,  1817.  She  was  the  daughter  of  J.  Wilson, 
Governor  of  South  Carolina,  and  great-granddaughter  of  Sir  Row- 
land Alston,  Baronet.  Close  to  this  monument  is  the  tomb  of  Maria, 
widow  of  Sir  John  Nisbett,  Baronet,  of  Dean  Castle,  Edinburgh,  1856. 
Her  father,  Colonel  Alston,  fought  in  the  American  War  of  Inde- 
pendence. Here  are  also  interred  the  remains  of  her  great-nephew, 
Mark  Pinkerton,  son  of  the  above-mentioned  Mrs.  Pinkerton,  1852, 
"  the  stone  placed  by  Captain  Newell,  R.N."  ;  and  near  it  is  the  tomb 
inscribed  '*  Rear- Admiral  J.  J.  Newell,  1862  "  ;  Admiral  John  Carter, 
R.N.,  1863,  and  his  wife,  1868  ;  Bridget  Hood,  wife  of  Rev.  Richard 
Hood,  1822;  Ebenezer  Ball  Brown,  1869;  Lieut. -Colonel  WT.  G. 
Sutton,  1884,  and  his  wife,  1882  ;  C.  Sneyd  Edgeworth,  of  Edge- 
worthstown,  Ireland,  1864,  and  his  wife,  Henrica.  C.  S.  Edgeworth 
was,  it  is  said,  of  the  same  family  as  Maria  Edgeworth,  the  talented 
authoress  of  "  Castle  Rackrent,"  "  Belinda,"  "  Leonora,"  "  The  Modern 
Griselda,"  &c,  of  whom  it  has  been  justly  said  :  "  In  all  her  novels 
her  pen  was  devoted  not  only  to  make  us  feel  what  is  good,  but  to 


make  us  do  what  is  good."  She  died  at  Edgeworthstown,  county 
Longford,  in  1849.  It  has  also  been  stated  that  she  occasionally- 
attended  Divine  service  at  this  church.  Near  to  it  is  the  grave  of  Mrs. 
M.  Wilson,  the  wife  of  W,  E.  G.  Wilson,  M.D.,  1886  ;  H.  Lang,  1879. 

A  handsome  monument  in  marble,  surmounted  by  a  Calvary  cross, 
with  anchor  and  cable  intertwined,  marks  the  tomb  of  Admiral  Sir 
Richard  Collinson,  K.C.B.,  Deputy  Master  of  the  Trinity  House, 
born  1811,  died  1883.  Like  some  others,  it  demands  more  than  a 
passing  notice.  This  distinguished  officer  belonged  to  that  little 
band  of  intrepid  seamen  who  sought,  'mid  "  thick-ribbed  ice  and 
snow,"  to  succour  and  bring  back  to  their  sorrowing  country  the  ill- 
fated  Sir  John  Franklin,  Captain  Crozier,  and  the  other  gallant  officers 
and  men  composing  the  crews  of  the  Erebus  and  Terror,  who  perished, 
after  great  hardships  and  sufferings,  in  their  brave  attempt  to  dis- 
cover a  North- West  Passage. 

In  reading  this  inscription  it  is  impossible  to  help  recalling  the 
share  taken  by  the  gallant  admiral,  whose  remains  now  repose  amid 
far  different  scenes,  in  the  memorable  search,  carried  out  by  expedi- 
tions organised  both  by  the  Government  and  by  Lady  Franklin  her- 
self, to  bring  back  the  missing  crews  to  their  friends,  who,  unhappily, 
like  the  Danish  dames  of  old — 

"  Sitting  sadly  by  the  sea-beat  shore, 
Shall  look  for  lords  who  never  will  return." 

The  object  of  the  expedition,  composed  of  the  Enterprise  and  Inves- 
tigator, commanded  by  Captain  Collinson,  was  to  search  for  the  Franklin 
expedition  via  Behring's  Strait  along  the  northern  coast  of  America 
towards  King  William  Land.  It  was  a  most  adventurous  and  arduous 
voyage,  in  which  the  commander's  ship,  the  Enterprise,  narrowly 
escaped  the  fate  of  those  she  was  sent  to  succour.  Before  reaching 
Behring's  Strait  the  two  ships  were  parted,  and  the  Enterprise  was 
absent  three  and  a  half  years,  and  her  officers  and  crew  were  shut 
up  in  the  ice  during  the  greater  part  of  that  time  without  means  of 
communication  with  home.  They  were  thus  thrown  on  their  own 
resources,  amidst  the  dangers  and  severe  climatic  conditions  of  the 
polar  regions,  longer  than  either  of  the  other  searching  expeditions. 
Great  anxiety,  in  fact,  arose  in  this  country  as  to  whether  they  would 
ever  return. 


The  Admiral's  ship,  after  many  difficulties,  reached  as  far  as  Cam- 
bridge Bay,  and  its  exploring  parties  were  almost  within  sight  of  the 
spot  where  a  boat  of  the  unfortunate  Franklin  expedition  was  found 
three  years  later  by  Captain  (now  Sir  Leopold)  McClintock.  Sir 
Richard  thus  missed  the  honour  of  that  discovery  as  well  as  that  of 
the  North- West  Passage,  though  he  had  the  satisfaction  of  knowing 
that  he  virtually  "  made  the  passage  "  by  overlapping  the  longitude 
already  traversed  by  previous  explorers  from  the  east.* 

With  better  fortune,  in  one  respect,  than  Captain  Maclure  in  the 
Investigator,  he  brought  his  ship  safely  home,  while  the  former, 
though  he  had  the  honour  of  being  the  discoverer  of  the  North- West 
Passage,  had  to  leave  his  ship  in  the  ice,  a  monument  of  his  discovery. 

There  is  also  an  inscription  recording  the  death  of  his  sister,  Julia 
Cecilia,  wife  of  Walter  de  Winton  ;  and  secondly,  of  R.  W.  Streeton, 
who  died  1878. 

Immediately  adjoining  it  is  a  granite  tomb  inscribed  to  the  memory 
of  Amelia,  widow  of  the  Rev.  J.  Collinson,  Rector  of  Boldon,  Gates- 
head, who  died  at  Ealing  in  1871. 

The  Arctic  explorer's  sisters  and  his  brother,  Major- General  T.  B. 
Collinson,  R.E.,  reside  at  Ealing,  the  latter,  like  the  late  admiral, 
taking  a  warm  interest  in  the  progress  of  the  town. 

Near  it  is  the  plain  tomb,  surmounted  by  a  simple  Calvary  cross, 
of  George  Frere,  1878,  who  served  the  Government  with  credit  in  a 
civil  capacity  in  South  Africa,  as  did  his  relative,  Sir  Bartle  Frere  ; 
and  to  the  west  of  it  is  a  similar  memorial  to  his  grandson,  George 
Frere— son  of  George  Edgar  and  Adelaide  M.  Frere — born  1874,  died 
1887.  A  handsome  monument  marks  the  resting-place  of  Major- 
General  Fitzmaurice,  who  served  with  distinction  in  the  Peninsular 
War  and  at  Waterloo.  He  died  at  Drayton  Green  in  1865,  the  same 
year  as  his  eldest  son,  Maurice  Henry  Fitzmaurice,  Captain  and 
Adjutant  R.A.,  who  is  interred  in  the  same  tomb. 

Near,  too,  is  the  grave  of  Rear-Admiral  Frederick  Augustus 
Wetherall,  1856,  and  his  wife,  1848  (the  former  was  a  brother  of  Sir 
George  Wetherall,  who  lived  at  Ealing)  ;  Alfredo  Duprat,  1881,  and 

*  For  a  full  account  of  the  expeditions  sent  in  search  of  Sir  John  Franklin,  see  "  The 
North-West  Passage  and  Search  for  Sir  John  Franklin,"  by  John  Brown,  F.R.G.S., 
F.S.N. A.,  &c,  second  edition  with  sequel,  1860. 


Albert  Mainwaring  Ducat,  Commander  R.N.,  1884;  the  latter  died 
from  the  effects  of  an  accident  while  in  the  performance  of  his  duty 
on  board  of  his  ship.  The  tomb  is  here  of  Edward  Webster,  1875,  a 
barrister  of  repute  ;  he  was  one  of  the  leaders  in  Parliamentary  elec- 
tions in  this  county,  and  he  earned  the  respect  of  both  political 
parties;  also  that  of  George  Masters,  of  Drayton  Green,  1866; 
G.  A.  F.  Saulez,  Rector  of  Exton,  1884  ;  Sophia  Anne,  wife  of  George 
John  Haffenden,  of  Hanwell,  1864  ;  Sophia  Anne,  widow  of  Charles 
Patten,  of  Uxbridge,  1868  ;  G.  C.  Selwyn  Durant,  1872  ;  Adam,  son 
of  Alexander  and  Alice  Forbes,  1881  ;  George  Penn,  1884;  Sarah 
Winter,  1864;  W.  Coomes,  1849;  Walter  Keyte,  1880;  Marianne 
Porter,  1888;  Jane  M.  Northey,  1887;  Mary  Bowler,  wife  of 
Thomas  Chaloner,  of  Guisborough,  1858  ;  C.  Collet,  1882  ;  T.  P. 
Rigby,  1889. 

There  is  also  a  cross  to  the  memory  of  W.  V.  Condell,  1887  ;  it  is 
inscribed  with  the  simple  but  significant  words  "  Thou  knowest,"  and 
memorials  to  R.  Sankey  Gowlland,  1886  ;  L.  H.  Edmeston  Hodges, 
1869;  Anthony  Todd  Thomson,  M.D.,  1819,  an  eminent  physician 
and  author  of  medical  works ;  Septimus  C.  M.  Slade,  1886,  a  nephew 
of  Sir  John  Slade,  Bart.,  who  was  for  many  years  in  her  Majesty's 
Paymaster-General's  office  ;  Middleton  Rayne,  late  chief  engineer  of 
the  Indus  Valley  Railway,  1882,  and  J.  R.  Randall,  1881  ;  John 
Eddy,  1875  ;  Elizabeth  Alder,  1884;  Elizabeth  C.  Roberts,  county 
Kildare,  1884;  T.  E.  J.  Henry,  Castleblaney,  1883;  and  Thomas 
Street,  1855,  and  his  sister  Angelina  Sweitzer,  1857.  This  monu- 
ment bears  the  following  pretty  inscription  : — 

"  Blessed  are  ye  both,  your  ashes  rest, 
Beside  the  spot  you  loved  the  best, 
And  that  dear  home,  which  saw  your  birth, 
O'er  looks  you  in  your  bed  of  earth." 

There  are  also  the  family  graves  of  John  Hopkinson,  1862-4  ;  the 
Chapmans,  of  Greenford ;  Smiths,  of  Hanwell ;  of  Charles  Bartho- 
lomew, of  Castlebar,  Ealing ;  and  monuments  to  the  wife  of  C.  F. 
Smart,  of  London,  1858  (he  was  a  brother  of  Sir  George  Smart,  the 
eminent  music  composer);  Henry  Scott  Turner,  1868,  inscribed  also 
to  his  wife,  1875,  and  son,  Major  Scott  Turner,  1871  ;  Mrs.  Butlin, 


1868,  and  children;  Caroline,  wife  of  Rev.  W.  Gambier,  Hawtayne, 
1867  ;  Mrs.  M.  F.  Josling,  1884,  and  others  of  that  family.  Among 
many  others,  there  are  very  costly  monuments  to  G.  A.  R.  Willey,  and 
a  very  imposing  one,  to  Grace  Caroline  Hicks,  1886,  &c.  ;  the  latter  is 
surmounted  by  a  beautiful  marble  sculptured  figure  of  an  angel,  &c. 
There  are  simpler  monuments  to  the  rector's  daughter,  Florence,  wife 
of  Captain  Blaine,  who  died  in  South  Africa ;  Charles  Cracknell,  of 
Ealing,  1880  ;  Charles  Edward  Collier,  1883  ;  and  among  the  more 
recent  interments  is  that  to  the  Rev.  S.  J.  Jerram,  late  Rector  of  Chob- 
ham,  1887,  and  near  it  the  grave  of  his  daughter,  Eva,  1885.  A 
large  table  tomb  marks  the  place  of  interment  of  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Nicholas,  the  learned  proprietor  of  the  celebrated  Ealing  High  School, 
where  many  eminent  persons  have  been  educated  ;  some  of  whom  are 
alluded  to  in  the  concluding  chapter.      He  died  in  1829. 

There  are  also  examples  in  this  churchyard  of  the  old-fashioned, 
quaint  wooden  memorials,  which  formerly  served  the  purpose  when 
stone  was  more  difficult  to  procure  before  the  railway  system  was 
developed.  In  most  of  them  the  timber  is  fast  decaying,  and  the 
inscriptions  have  become  obliterated.  One  of  these  old  memorials 
has  lately  been  restored,  and  is  to  the  memory  of  Martha  Filby,  1826 ; 
Thomas  Filby,  1833;  Mary,  his  wife,  1840;  Fanny  Filby,  1868; 
and  Thomas  Filby,  1876.  There  is  another  to  the  memory  of 
George  Dos  well,  1848. 

An  addition  has  been  made  to  the  churchyard  within  very  recent 
years,  for  the  peaceful  seclusion  of  Perivale  has  made  it  not  only  a 
favourite  resort  of  the  living,  but  a  spot  preferred  for  the  interment 
of  those  who  have  left  these  earthly  scenes.  This  has  been  specially 
the  case  of  late  years,  and  it  contains,  for  its  size,  an  unusual  number 
of  rich  and  costly  monuments.  Some  of  the  least  imposing  memorials 
and  those  inscribed  with  the  simplest  words  are  often  the  most  touch- 
ing. Among  such  is  one  to  an  infant,  Annie  Page,  1866,  with  the 
epitaph,  "One  of  these  little  ones." 

There  are  fewer  epitaphs  in  doggerel  in  Perivale  than  in  most 
village  churchyards ;  they  are  not  entirely  wanting,  however,  as 
shown  by  the  following.  On  an  old  headstone,  inscribed  to  the  memory 
of  the  two  infant  children  of  William  and  Sarah  Evans,  are  these 
lines  :  — 


"  When  children  die  in  infancy 
Like  flowers  newly  born  ; 
The  Lord  that  sent  hath  only  lent 
And  takes  but  what's  his  own." 

Sarah  Evans  died  1779  ;  William  Evans,  Citizen  and  Skinner,  1780. 

There  is  a  headstone  which  should  also  be  mentioned  ;  it  is  near 
the  old  elm  which  spreads  its  leafy  branches  over  the  entrance  to  the 
churchyard,  and  is  inscribed  to  the  memory  of  a  certain  unfortunate 
person  and  his  daughter.  Tradition  says  that  the  former  suffered  the 
extreme  penalty  of  the  law  in  the  early  part  of  this  century  for  firing 
a  pistol  at  a  man  at  Apperton,  with  intent  to  kill,  in  a  dispute  of 
some  kind.  The  report  runs  that  there  is  here  an  exceptional  instance 
of  the  body  of  an  executed  person  being  taken  out  of  Newgate  and 
here  interred  ;  while  it  is  said  by  others  that  the  remains  are  repre- 
sented by  broken  bricks  and  stones  which  now  fill  the  coffin.  The 
story,  which  is  rather  a  melancholy  one,  has  a  foundation  in  fact,  and 
will  be  referred  to  later. 

Such  traditions  dwell  long  in  the  memory  of  the  simple  rustics  of 
Perivale,  some  of  whom  still  believe  in  the  statement  that  there  is  in 
this  graveyard  a  tomb  without  an  occupant.  It  is  said  the  grave 
was  made,  but  that  the  person  whose  death  is  recorded  was  never 
buried  in  it. 


"  "Tis  beauty  all  and  grateful  song  around, 
Joined  to  the  low  of  Mne  and  numerous  bleat 
Of  flocks  thick-nibbbng  thro'  the  clover'd  rale." — Thomson. 

Something  should  now  be  said  about  the  parish  of  Perivale  as  it  is, 
and  of  what  is  known  of  the  hamlet  during  the  past  century,  when  it 
had  ceased  to  be  called  "  a  town,"  as  it  is  designated  on  Mrs. 
Shelbury's  monument  in  the  church,  already  described. 

The  rectory,  which  adjoins  the  churchyard,  is  a  half-timbered 
building  in  the  style  of  the  fifteenth  century  ;  it  is  very  picturesque, 
and  quite  in  harmony  with  the  church  and  farmhouses  and  out- 
buildings in  its  vicinity.  The  most  ancient  portions  of  the  structure, 
Avhich  are  very  old,  may  be  seen  at  the  back ;  the  front  was  added 
about  the  middle  of  the  present  century.  Before  this  addition  was 
made,  the  old  rectory  was  visible  as  a  very  unpretentious  building, 
and  adjoining  it  was  a  smaller  house,  both  of  which  have  been 
absorbed  behind  the  present  facade  and  converted  into  one  house. 
Mr.  Farthing,  who  lived  there  in  1845,  and  made  most  of  the  altera- 
tions, has  described  it : — "It  is  an  irregular  old  building,  standing  in 
its  own  grounds,  isolated  on  all  sides.  There  are  three  fronts  ;  the 
principal  one  looks  towards  the  west  over  a  large  meadow  orna- 
mented with  stately  trees  [probably  the  grounds  of  the  old  manor 
house] ;  it  consists  of  three  projections  surmounted  by  pointed 
gables  of  ornamental  woodwork.  The  centre  one  contains  the 
antique  entrance  porch,  with  its  quaintly-carved  columns  and  twisted 
balusters  leading  to  the  hall  and  spiral  staircase,  from  whence  diverge 
long  passages  leading  to  the  living-rooms  and  offices.  The  rooms 
are  lighted  by  projecting  bay  windows,  in  which  is  some  stained 
glass ;  the  ceilings  are  very  low,  and  these  are  crossed  by  huge 
beams  of  timber,  giving  one  the  idea  of  a  ship's  cabin."     The  old 



houses  forming  the  back  are  probably  at  least  three  hundred  years 
old,  yet  are  "  not  haunted  by  either  ghost  or  goblin,  but  as  this  is 
contrary  to  all  rule,"  he  says,  "  I  have  converted  a  laughable  occur- 
rence which  once  happened  into  the  following  very  tolerable  ghost 
story."     It  is  almost  worthy  of  a  place  in  the  "  Ingoldsby  Legends." 

A  Legende  of  the  Rectobie  at  Pebi-vale. 

Loud  roared  the  wind  at  Perivale, 
The  rain  fell  thick  and  fast, 

The  Rectory  shook  in  that  fierce  gale, 
The  trees  bent  to  the  blast. 

•'Sir  Knighte !  SirKnighte,"  the  pasto*  said, 

"  Go  not  to  that  dread  room : 
The  fiend  within  will  strike  thee  dead  ; 

Tempt  not  thy  certain  doom.'' 

"  I  fear  no  fiend,"  the  knight  replied  ; 

"  But  soon  I'll  crop  his  ears. 
Bring  me  a  fight,  Sir  Priest,"  he  cried  ; 

"  And  have  for  me  no  fears." 

"Boast  not  thy  strength, ' '  his  reverence  said, 
"  For  know,  my  son,  this  nighte 

Thou  need'st  must  goe  unto  thy  bedde 
"Without  a  taper's  light." 

"  Then  quickly  guide  me  up  the  stair, 

And  give  me  the  Boor-key. 
I'll  make  this  demon  quit  his  lair, 

And  yield  the  room  to  me." 

The  knight  has  reached  the  chamber  door, 

And  entered  it  so  bold  ! 
When  from  within  a  dreadful  snore 

Made  his  heart's  blood  run  cold  ! 

His  head  he  ran  against  a  post 

(The  bedpost  of  the  bed), 
Which  made  him  think  the  demon  ghost 

Had  knocked  him  on  the  head. 

"  Ho  !  ho,"  thought  he,  "  is  this  the  way 

You  treat  your  company  ? 
Such  deadly  blows,  I  needs  must  say, 

Prove  lack  of  courtesy  !  " 

Then  to  the  bed  he  groped  his  way, 

And  felt  for  the  bed-clothes, 
When  from  that  bed,  to  his  dismay, 

A  fiendish  snort  arose. 

The  knight  cried  boldly,  "  Who  are  you  ? 

Pray,  what  would  you  be  at  ? 
Speak  quickly,  fiend,  and  tell  me  true, 

Or  I'll  deal  thee  a  pat !  " 

A  thought  occurred  to  this  brave  knight — 

A  shrewd  idea,  d'ye  see  ? — 
Both  nends  and  ghosts  do  all  take  fright 

At  cock-crowing,  they  say. — 

"  Cock-a-doodle-doo-o-oo," 
He  crew ;  then  cried,  ' '  My  wig  !  " 

As  from  the  bed  with  much  ado 
Up  jumpt  the  Parson's  pig. 

To  the  stair-head  both  pig  and  knight 

Ran,  as  if  you'd  shot  'em, 
Over  each  other  in  their  flight, 

Rolling  from  top  to  bottom  ! 

A  score  of  priests  since  then,  we're  told, 

The  rectory  have  taken, 
To  dust  has  turned  that  knight  so  bold, 

The  phantom  pig  to — bacon. 

Unearthly  sounds  do  still  prevail, 

But  from  no  ghosts — alas  ! 
They  come  from  the  Great  Western  rail, 

When  the  express  trains  pass  ! 

In  the  field  west  of  the  church  and  rectory  may  be  seen  the 
depressions  in  the  land  which  mark  the  site  of  the  old  Manor  House 
of  Greenford  Parva. 

It  was   not  standing   in  Lysons'  time,  and  the  building  has  been 


taken  down  about  one  hundred  years  ;  not  a  stone  or  brick  now 
remains  of  the  structure,  which  was,  no  doubt,  the  residence  of  many 
of  the  Lords  of  the  Manor.  The  ground  plan  of  the  building,  and  of 
other  houses  in  the  hamlet,  is  shown  in  the  map  of  John  Rocques' 
Survey  of  1741-5  ;  the  rotting  wooden  gate-posts  showing  the 
entrance  to  the  grounds  may,  however,  still  be  noticed  in  .the  hedge 
in  the  Greenford  Road  ;  and  the  place  may  be  seen — 

"  Where  once  the  garden  smiled, 
And  still  where  many  a  garden  flower  grows  wild  " — 

for  every  year  at  this  spot  may  be  noticed  daffodils,  and  occasionally 
other  cultivated  flowers,  among  the  grass,  striving  in  vain  to  over- 
come the  fate  to  which  they  must  yield  sooner  or  later. 

The  old  Manor  Place  at  Perivale  appears  to  have  been  protected 
in  ancient  times  by  a  moat,  the  remains  of  which  may  still  be  observed 
on  three  sides  ;  its  dry  bed  on  the  south,  near  the  Brent,  as  well  as 
its  western  side,  is  clearly  discernible. 

The  writer  was  informed  by  an  old  inhabitant,  who  had  lived  in 
the  locality  forty-three  years,  that  the  northern  portion  had  been 
partly  filled  up  during  his  time,  and  now  was  diminished  to  the  ditch 
in  that  direction. 

The  probability  of  the  Manor  House  having  been  moated  is  itself 
evidence  of  antiquity,  and  recalls  the  period  when  such  buildings 
were  subject  to  the  attacks  of  armed  bands  and  marauders  in 
troublous  times. 

A  side  view  of  a  part  of  the  Manor  House  may  be  seen  in  a  water- 
colour  drawing  of  the  church  inserted  in  the  copy  of  Lysons' 
"Environs,"  now  in  Guildhall  Library,  to  which  allusion  has  been 
made  ;  it  is  evidently  of  older  date  than  the  others,  which  are 
inscribed  1794. 

In  the  MS.  book,  entitled  "  Pictures  of  Ferivale,"  by  Mr.  John 
Farthing,  a  gentleman  who  occupied  the  old  Rectory,  and  afterwards 
Perivale  Grange  (now  called  the  Grange  Farm)  for  some  years,  there 
is  a  pen-and-ink  sketch  of  it,  which  is  here  reproduced,  his  widow 
having  kindly  placed  these  interesting  notes  in  the  writer's  hands. 
The  description  of  the  Manor  House  is  best  given  in  that  writer's 
own  words.      It  is  probable  that  both  the  latter  and  the  sketch  were 


obtained  from  the  Rev.  James  F.  Lateward,  Rector  when  Mr. 
Farthing  resided  in  the  parish,  and  was  on  terms  of  friendship  with 
him  (1845). 

"  Opposite  the  Rectory  is  a  large  meadow  ornamented  with  fine 
trees,  among  which  is  a  magnificent  walnut  and  a  venerable  mulberry  ; 
this  was  formerly  the  garden  of  the  old  Manor  House  which  stood 
here  and  reared  its  aristocratic  head,  looking  down  on  the  humble 
parsonage  beneath,  to  which  it  offered  both  a  shelter  and  protection. 
The  present  incumbent  (Rev.  J.  F.  Lateward)  first  saw  the  light  within 
its  walls,  soon  after  which  event  the  building  was  taken  down,  it 
being  greatly  dilapidated  from  age  and  the  want  of  proper  reparation. 

"  When  the  mansion  was  first  erected,  Perivale  was  in  its  palmy  and 
prosperous  state,  and  far  more  populous  than  it  has  ever  since  been. 
The  proud  owner  and  occupier  of  the  house  styled  himself  "  Lord  of 
this  towne,"  and  is  so  designated  on  an  old  mural  monument  in  the 
church.  The  erection  was  of  red  brick,  and  had  three  principal 
fronts,  the  fourth  looking  only  towards  the  stables  and  offices.  It 
was  separated  from  the  road  by  a  lofty  brick  wall,  and  the  entrance 
was  through  a  pair  of  curiously-wrought  iron  gates  supported  by 
pillars,  also  of  red  brick,  crowned  by  lions  carved  in  stone.  A  broad 
gravel  walk,  with  a  grass  plot  on  each  side,  led  to  the  door  of  the 
mansion.  On  ascending  a  double  flight  of  stone  steps  you  entered 
the  large  hall,  paved  with  black  and  white  marble  in  alternate 
squares  ;  stags'  heads  with  the  antlers  adorned  the  walls,  with  here 
and  there  demi-suits  of  armour  and  warlike  weapons.  A  broad  stair- 
case of  oak  with  carved  balusters  led  to  the  upper  apartments,  and 
there  was  another  story  over  these  containing  the  dormitories.      We 

will  enter  this  lower  room It  is  of  goodly  proportions,  and 

lighted  by  a  large  bay  window  glazed  with  small  squares  of  a  coarse 
green  glass.  The  walls  are  wainscoted  with  dark  '  oak  in  small 
panels.  The  fireplace  is  large  and  roomy,  and  there  are  hand-dogs 
laden  with  large  burning  logs  of  wood.  On  the  keystone  of  the  arch 
of  the  fireplace  is  a  shield  bearing  the  arms  of  Myllett,  viz.,  Argent,  a 
cross  gules  with  a  lion  passant  or  in  the  upper  compartment,  and  the 
motto  on  a  ribband,  '  Diligo  Crucis  Leonem.'  Over  the  fireplace  is 
suspended  in  a  carved  oak  frame,  a  portrait  of  a  gentleman  in  the 
prime  of  life,  by  a  pupil  of  Vandyke " 


An  old  person,  aged  eighty-four,  a  daughter  of  one  of  the  larger 
farmers  in  the  parish,  told  the  writer  she  remembers  hearing  in  her 
girlhood  old  persons  (who  lived  at  the  time  when  "  Squire  Harrison  " 
and  his  successor,  Richard  Late  ward,  resided  in  their  Manor  House) 
speak  of  the  importance  of  the  old  mansion  and  the  establishment 
its  possessors  maintained  there.  Another  worthy  old  dame  of  about 
the  same  age,  living  at  Greenford,  had  heard  similar  stories  of  the 
grandeur  of  the  old  place  and  its  "  many  windows,"  and  of  the 
decay  and  neglect  which  had  necessitated  its  removal.  "  Time,  the 
destroyer,  has  now  swept  away  every  vestige  of  that  fair  mansion, 
the  venerable  mulberry  and  huge  walnut  trees  alone  remaining  as 
mute  witnesses  of  its  former  grandeur." 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  this  Manor  Place  was  very  old  when  it 
was  removed.  Mr.  Farthing  appears  to  suggest  that  it  was  at  least 
as  old  as  the  period  when  Henry  Myllett  lived,  a  brass  to  whose 
memory  is  still  in  the  church  with  the  date  1500  ;  perhaps  it  may 
have  been  even  older.  What  changes  in  manners,  customs,  and  reli- 
gion must  its  inmates  successively  have  witnessed  ?  and  then  the  old 
Norman  lords  before ! 

No  doubt  many  of  these  old  feudal  barons,  and  other  Lords  of  the 
Manor,  the  De  Mandevilles,  De  Bohuns,  De  Beaumonts,  and  those  who 
followed  them,  whose  lives  we  have  chronicled,  were  proud  of  their 
possessions  and  titles,  and  like  many  existing  people,  were  not  very 
particular  how  they  obtained  either  the  one  or  the  other.  Many  of 
them  have  left  us  little  more  than  a  record  of  their  names — as  Sir 
Walter  Scott  has  said  : — "  Their  escutcheons  have  long  mouldered  from 
the  walls  of  their  castles  ;  their  castles  themselves  are  but  green 
mounds  and  shattered  ruins — the  place  that  once  knew  them  knows 
them  no  more  ;  nay,  many  a  race  since  then  has  died  out  and  been 
forgotten  in  the  very  land  which  they  occupied  with  all  the  autho- 
rity of  feudal  proprietors  and  feudal  lords."      In  Coleridge's  words — 

' '  The  knights  are  dust, 
And  their  good  swords  are  rust, 
Their  souls  are  with  the  saints'  we  trust." 

There  are  now  five  farm-houses  in  Perivale,  all  hay  farms.  It  is 
said  there  are  no  labourers'  cottages,  which  appears   to  be  the  fact. 


The  farms  are  known  as  Horsendon,  Apperton  (sometimes,  but  im- 
properly, called  Alperton),  Manor,  Church,  and  Grange  farms.  Horsen- 
don and  Apperton  farms  became  so  dilapidated  that  they  have  been 
rebuilt  in  quite  recent  years,  but  the  others,  particularly  Manor 
and  Grange  Farms,  are  in  part  very  old  ;  portions  of  Church  Farm 
are  also  old,  though  a  new  building  was  added  to  it  some  years 

Manor  Farm,  situated  on  the  road  from  Perivale  to  Apperton,  has 
about  120  acres  attached  to  it.  It  is  not  included  in  the  Manor 
of  Perivale,  but  is  the  property  of  the  trustees  of  Lady  Penfold. 

There  is  no  evidence  to  show  that  it  originally  formed  part  of  the 
manorial  estate,  though  it  is  subject  to  the  same  collection  of  tithe  as 
the  rest  of  the  parish.  It  has  already  been  mentioned  that  Richard 
Late  ward,  who,  in  1767,  purchased  the  manorial  estate,  valued  at 
£485  per  annum,  bought  the  whole  parish,  except  a  farm  of  £40 
per  annum,  and  no  doubt  Manor  Farm  was  the  exception  referred  to. 
Lady  Delpierre,  who  is  Lady  of  the  Manor,  is  a  descendant  of  John 
Schrieber,  who  took  the  name  of  Lateward,  and  became  possessed  of 
the  manorial  property  under  the  will  of  Richard  Lateward. 

This  farm  may  also,  in  all  probability,  be  identified  with  the  "Besse 
Place,"  a  house  with  certain  lands  attached  to  it,  which  formed  part 
of  the  possessions  of  Henry  Morgan,  who  was  attainted  for  high 
treason  in  1613,  and  which  was  afterwards  granted  to  John  Leving- 
ston,  to  which  reference  has  also  been  made.  There  is  an  old  room 
in  this  farm-house  panelled  in  oak  with  carved  door. 

Manor  Farm  was,  in  1812,  let  to  Thomas  Bowler,  who  suffered  the 
severest  penalty  of  the  law  for  shooting  with  intent  to  kill  one 
Borroughes  (also  a  farmer)  at  Apperton.  It  would  seem  from  the 
tradition  still  believed  that  the  latter,  besides  showing  great  ingrati- 
tude in  money  matters  to  the  man  who  had  befriended  him,  had 
seduced  the  daughter  of  the  former.  Although  the  attempt  to  murder 
was  premeditated,  it  seems  hard  to  believe  that  a  man  who  had  been  pro- 
bably led  into  evil  by  such  a  wrong  culminating  in  a  fruitless  attempt 
to  avenge  the  injury  done,  to  him  should  have  been  executed.  Great 
sympathy  was  shown  to  him,  and  even  Borroughes  joined  in  the  effort 
to  avert  the  carrying  out  of  the  sentence.  Bowler  was  arrested  after 
he  had  been  in  hiding  twelve  months,  and  when,  as  Borroughes  had 


got  well,  his  family  thought  there  was  no  fear  of  his  being  punished 
severely.  He  was  taken  at  a  farm-house  at  Apperton,  also  in  his 
occupation,  and  executed.  It  is  said  his  body  was  obtained  from  the 
dissecting-room  to  which  it  had  been  taken  and  buried  in  Perivale 
Churchyard,  near  the  elm  at  the  entrance.  It  is  supposed  that  the 
assassination  of  Percival  by  Bellingham  the  same  year  hardened  the 
heart  of  the  Government  and  prevented  any  mercy  being  shown  to 

The  strangest  stories  are  still  told  about  the  farm  where  he  was 
taken,  and  the  unnatural  noises  and  rattling  sounds  heard  there  at 
night  for  years  afterwards  are  said  to  be  associated  with  his  unquiet 
spirit  ;  of  which  uncanny  sounds,  &c,  an  old  man,  who  was  then  a 
boy,  gave  the  writer  a  very  graphic  account,  but  the  ghost  has  long 
since  been  exorcised  or  has  taken  his  departure  "sans  ceremonie." 
It  is  also  averred  that  Bowler's  money,  a  large  part  of  which  was 
deposited  by  him  in  an  iron  box  and  buried  secretly,  has  never  been 

Grange  Farm,  called  at  one  time  Perivale  Grange,  though  modified 
somewhat  during  the  last  half-century,  has  much  of  the  old  structure 
still  left  in  it.  It  is  situated  on  the  Greenford  Road,  near  the  rotting 
gate  posts,  walnut  and  other  trees,  which  still  mark  the  entrance  to 
the  grounds  of  the  old  manor-house  before  it  was  taken  down.  Ex- 
ternally it  still,  like  most  of  the  other  farm-houses  and  out-buildings, 
retains  its  old  world  appearance,  and  adds  to  the  beauty  of  this 
secluded  hamlet.  The  oldest  portion  is  internally  heavily  timbered, 
and  there  is  some  curious  old  oak  carved  work,  now  painted,  near 
the  door,  but  whether  it  originally  belonged  to  the  structure  it  is 
impossible  to  say. 

Very  primitive-looking  is  the  wooden  building,  called  the  Church 
Farm,  with  the  thatched  outbuildings  and  red-tiled  barns  connected 
with  it,  which  are  situated  near  the  northern  entrance  to  the  church- 
yard. Time  has  tinted  and  mellowed  them  into  harmony  with  the 
trees  and  the  general  landscape,  and  even  the  newer  portion  of  the 
farm  buildings  is  yielding  to  the  same  influence. 

It  is  said  some  person  many  years  ago  attempted  to  renovate 
and  rebuild  some  of  the  farm-houses  in  Perivale,  but  the  contract  or 
speculation  proved  unlucky,  and,  as  the  old  rustic  who  informed  the 



writer  of  the  tradition  added,  he  "had  to  run  for  it,  feathers  or  no 
feathers."  No  doubt  the  genius  of  the  hamlet  pursued  him  for 
daring  to  endeavour  to  remodel  a  place  so  destined  by  nature  to 
preserve  its  old  character  and  appearance ! 

Near  the  Church  Farm,  in  the  early  part  of  this  century,  was  the 
enclosure  where  strayed  animals  were  confined  until  they  were  taken 
out  at  the  owner's  cost,  i.e.,  "  the  pound  "  ;  but  such  an  institution 


does  not  exist  now.  Probably  Perivale  at  one  time  had  its  stocks, 
and  other  punitive  or  corrective  arrangements,  but  no  record  remains 
of  them. 

The  most  remarkable  and  characteristic  fact  connected  with  Peri- 
vale is  that  there  is  no  public-house  there  !  Nor  has  there  ever  been 
one,  as  far  as  the  writer  has  been  able  to  learn.  No  brewer  has  ever 
had  the  courage  to  establish  one.  The  thirsty  traveller  must  pass 
through  the  parish  and  walk  nearly  to  the  top  of  Horsendon  Hill 
before  he  can  refresh  himself  with  that  "  stouter  English  ale,"  or 
stronger   English  beer,  for  the  production   of  which  the  barley  of 


Perivale  was  so  famous  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  time,  as  recorded  by- 
Dray  ton. — (See  page  107.) 

The  history  of  Perivale  would  not  be  complete  without  an  allusion 
to  its  rural  sports,  which  have  been  held  there  annually  for  years, 
in  connection  with  the  Dedication  Festival  of  its  little  church.  The 
Pythian  games  held  near  the  Temple  of  Delphi  are  said  to  have  been 
instituted  in  honour  of  Apollo,  and  the  Olympic  games  were  dedicated 
to  Jupiter,  who  is  supposed  to  have  originated  them  after  his  victory 
over  the  Titans  ;  but,  alas !  as  we  do  not  know  to  whom  the  church 
was  dedicated,  it  is  impossible  to  associate  any  name  with  the  Dedi- 
cation Festival  of  Greenford  Parva. 

The  sports  are  celebrated  in  one  of  the  meadows  of  the  hamlet, 
and  are  very  popular.  The  youths,  generally  from  the  neighbouring 
town  of  Ealing,  contend  in  running  and  other  manly  exercises,  while 
the  maidens  vie  with  each  other  in  the  performance  of  feats  requiring 
skill  and  dexterity  suitable  to  their  sex.  Prizes  are  awarded  to  the 
successful  competitors,  and  they  are  generally  distributed  by  a  lady  of 
more  than  ordinary  importance. 



"  By  the  pricking  of  my  thumbs, 

Something  wioked  this  way  comes  : — 


Some  of  all  professions  that  go 

The  primrose  way  to  the  eternal  bonfire." — Macbeth. 

There  was  one  building  of  which  Perivale  once  could  boast,  which 
must  have  added  to  the  beauty  of  its  scenery,  i  e.,  a  windmill.  A  tradi- 
tion of  its  former  existence  is  still  preserved  in  the  mind  of  an  aged 
woman  {cetat  eighty-four)  who  "  was  born  and  bred  in  the  parish," 
a  daughter  of  one  of  the  old  farmers  whose  names  will  be  men- 
tioned. She  remembered  hearing  in  her  childhood  very  old  people 
say  there  had  been  a  windmill  there,  but,  except  that  it  was  near  an  old 
oak,  she  had  not  a  very  clear  idea  as  to  where  it  stood,  but  had  heard 
that  old  Squire  Harrison,  Lord  of  the  Manor  before  the  Latewards 
possessed  it,  used  to  have  corn  ground  there  more  than  a  hundred 
and  twenty  years  ago.  Mr.  Farthing,  in  his  MSS.  written  nearly  fifty 
years  since,  not  only  mentions  the  tradition  of  its  former  existence, 
but  has  given  us  a  sketch  of  the  windmill  at  Perivale,  "  from  an  old 
drawing  in  the  British  Museum  of  about  the  year  1470."  The  MS. 
also  contains  the  following  curious  legend  connected  with  it,  which  it 
is  presumed  he  obtained  from  some  of  the  old  people  to  whom  he 
refers,  as  his  source  of  information  ;  the  account  is  best  given  in  that 
writer's  own  words. 

The  Legend  of  Perivale  Mill. 

"  Wandering  along  the  banks  of  the  Brent  one  fine  afternoon, 
accompanied  by  my  two  dogs  and  Master  Cain  (the  old  sexton  and 
clerk),  the  latter  in  search  of  large  stones  for  rock- work,  we  came  to 
a  charmingly  secluded  spot  formed  by  an  abrupt  curve  of  the  river 
and  a  thicket  of  whitethorn  and  guelder-rose  bushes,  matted  together 
by  the  tendrils  of  the  briony  and  woodbine.    The  turf  was  like  velvet 


and  beautifully  verdant,  being  sheltered  from  the  scorching  rays  of 
the  sun  by  the  tall  trees  which  grew  around  ;  .  .  .  thousands  of  blue- 
bells and  white  violets  adorned  the  banks,  and  the  clear  waters  of 
the  stream  were  almost  hidden  from  the  eye  by  the  overhanging 
shrubs  and  trees,  as  it  meandered  over  its  pebbly  bed.  .  .  .  The 
dogs  barked  with  delight  as  they  roused  some  wood-pigeons  from 
their  perch  or  startled  the  shy  kingfisher  from  its  nest  of  fish-bones 
and  sent  it  skimming — 

'  Along  the  vista  of  the  brook, 
Where  antique  roots  its  bustling  course  o'ertook, 
And  tangled  shrubs  and  moss  of  emerald  green 
Cling  from  the  banks,  with  wildflowers  sweet  between.' 

The  melody  of  the  birds  alone  broke  the  silence  of  the  place ;  the 
blackbird's  joyous  whistle  and  the  softer  song  of  the  thrush,  with  the 
heavenly  notes  of  the  lark  as  she  hovered  over  her  nest  in  the 
adjoining  field,  riveted  me  to  the  spot.  ...  I  could  not  help  ex- 
claiming, as  I  threw  myself  down  on  the  soft  turf,  '  What  a  charming 
spot  for  a  picnic  ! '  '  What's  that  ? '  said  my  companion.  I  told 
him,  and  he  then  laughed  and  said,  '  Ay,  and  a  nice,  pretty  name 
the  place  has  got  for  gentlefolks  to  come  junketing  to.'  '  Why,  how 
is  it  called  ?  '  said  I.      '  Names  are  of  little  consequence — 

' '  The  rose 
By  any  other  name  would  smell  as  sweet." 

1  That  may  be,'  quoth  he  ;  '  but  it  wouldn't  sound  well  to  ask  ladies 
to  visit  such  a  place  as  this,  for,  let  me  tell  ye,  no  one  about  these 
parts  would  come  here  after  dark.  'Tis  called,  and  with  good  reason, 
too,  "The  Devil's  Plat."'" 

The  following  "authentic"  legend  is  associated  with  it,  and  though 
the  story  has  probably  been  embellished  by  the  writer,  it  is  not  un- 
likely that  it  contains  the  germs  of  truth,  as  far  as  the  tradition  is 

"  About  two  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago  Perivale  was  not  only 
more  populous  than  it  now  is,  but  was  a  comparatively  thriving 
place,  as  the  legend  on  an  old  monument  in  the  church  shows,  for 
the  husband  of  the  lady  to  whose  memory  it  was  erected  (Mrs.  Shel- 
bury)  is  thereon  described  as  '  Lord  of  this  Toune.'  A  windmill 
then  stood  upon  the  spot  where  I  was  lying,  at  which  the  inhabitants 


had  their  wheat  ground.  This  mill  was  owned  by  an  unsociable  sort 
of  man,  whose  name  was  Abel  Reed,  who  resided  alone  within  its 
precincts.  Near  the  mill  stood  the  cottage  of  a  poor  old  widow 
woman,  who  was  looked  upon  by  her  neighbours  as  a  witch,  and 
dreaded  accordingly.  All  the  villagers  believed  in  her  powers,  except 
the  miller,  who  considered  her  no  better  than  a  cheat  and  an  im- 
postor ;  he,  moreover,  took  a  malicious  delight  in  telling  her  so  when- 
ever she  crossed  his  path  ;  therefore  no  great  love  existed  between 
Abel  Reed  and  old  Dame  Gigs. 

"  One  day  she  met  the  miller  as  he  was  returning  from  the  ale- 
house, and  being  then  somewhat  quarrelsome,  he  began  abusing  the 
old  woman,  and  threatening  her  with  the  stocks,  &c.  This  so  roused 
the  old  woman's  ire,  that,  raising  her  withered  arms  above  her  grey 
head,  she  declared  Abel  Reed  to  be  a  lost  man,  a  child  of  the  devil, 
and  prognosticated  that  ere  twelve  months  expired  he  would  either 
be  drowned  in  the  Brent  or  crushed  by  his  own  millstones. 

"  From  that  hour  the  miller  was  looked  upon  distrustfully  by 
his  neighbours,  and  his  business  fell  off.  About  a  year  after  this 
prophecy  the  miller  was  missing,  and  as  several  days  had  elapsed 
without  any  tidings  of  him,  an  inquiry  wras  thought  necessary.  This 
was  all  very  well,  but  who  was  to  make  it  ?  No  one  dared  to  enter 
the  mill  until  old  Dame  Gigs,  after  sneering  at  their  cowardice, 
volunteered  to  go  in  and  see  what  was  the  matter. 

"  Some  of  the  villagers  assembled  to  see  the  result,  and  the  old 
woman  began  to  mount  the  ladder  leading  to  the  room  in  the  mill. 
This  being  of  considerable  height,  and  the  dame's  agility  not  having 
increased  with  her  years,  she  trembled,  made  a  false  step,  and  then 
fell  to  the  ground.  This  added  to  the  excitement  of  the  bystanders, 
and  some  of  them  having  conveyed  the  old  woman  to  her  cottage,  the 
others  prepared  to  make  another  essay,  .  .  .  and  having  done  so,  a  dis- 
covery was  soon  made.  Between  the  mill-stones  were  lound  pieces  of 
rag  and  broadcloth,  whilst  pulverized  bones,  hair,  and  blood  told  too 
plainly  the  end  of  the  unfortunate  miller,  and  Dame  Gigs,  in  spite 
of  her  imputed  skill,  could  not  save  her  own  life,  but  died  shortly 
after  from  the  effects  of  her  fall.  After  these  tragical  events  not  one 
would  take  the  mill,  and  it  became  a  ruin.  No  villager  would  pass 
the  spot  at  night,  unless  compelled  to  so,  and  when  they  did  they 


related  to  their  friends  all  sorts  of  stories  about  it :  how  they  had 
heard  the  moaning  of  Abel's  spirit  and  the  shrieks  of  Dame  Gig's 
ghost  amid  the  howling  of  the  wind,  and  some  even  averred  that 
they  had  seen  the  forms  of  Abel  Reed  and  the  old  dame  who  had 
cursed  him,  pursuing  each  other  round  the  gallery  of  the  haunted 
mill,  and  heard  noises  as  of  persons  struggling  together. 

"  Matters  remained  in  this  state  for  a  long  time,  when  at  last  an 
old  miser  declared  his  intention  of  occupying  the  ruined  mill,  to  the 
great  surprise  of  the  villagers,  and,  notwithstanding  their  entreaties 
and  warnings,  he  eventually  did  so.  Many  of  the  simple  folk,  how- 
ever, shook  their  heads  and  said  no  good  would  come  of  it. 

"  Shortly  afterwards  the  old  man  was  missing,  and  this,  circum- 
stance revived  afresh  all  the  stories  about  the  haunted  mill  ;  though 
many  of  the  villagers  believed  he  had  forfeited  his  life  by  his  temerity, 
yet  a  few  of  the  more  sensible  portion  thought  the  old  man  might 
still  be  living,  though  too  ill  to  leave  his  abode  in  search  of  assist- 
ance. Acting  on  this  conjecture  they  went  in  a  body  to  the  spot,  and 
called  loudly  to  the  old  man  by  his  name  ;  no  answer  was,  however, 
returned,  and  it  was  then  suggested  that  some  one  should  enter  the 
building.  The  constable  was  called  upon  virtute  officii ;  but  he  flatly 
refused,  as  did  all  the  others.  At  last  a  young  man  who  had  no 
friends  or  relatives  (being  a  foundling)  was  induced  to  undertake  the 
task,  and  Simon  Coston,  amid  the  breathless  expectation  of  the  rest 
below,  ascended  the  ladder,  Having  reached  the  gallery  he  pushed 
open  the  door,  and,  after  a  pause  of  a  few  seconds,  entered.  A  few 
moments  of  painful  silence  and  anxious  suspense  ensued,  when  a 
groan,  followed  by  a  loud  shriek,  startled  the  assembly,  and  Simon 
Coston  rushed  out  upon  the  gallery,  exclaiming,  '  The  ghost  !  the 
ghost  !  Fly,  fly  for  your  lives  ! '  No  further  intimation  was  neces- 
sary. Away  scampered  the  villagers,  without  daring  to  look  behind 
them  or  offering  to  assist  poor  Simon  in  his  perilous  position. 

"  Some  hours  afterwards  a  consultation  was  held,  and  it  being 
found  that  poor  Simon  Coston  was  also  missing,  it  was  determined 
that  another  attempt  to  discover  the  dreadful  mystery  should  at  once 
be  made.  Accordingly  several  stout  men,  having  fortified  their 
courage  by  drink  and  armed  themselves  with  guns,  pitchforks,  &c, 
they  proceeded  towards  the  place  in  a  body.      Having  arrived  at  the 


fence  which  divided  the  mill  from  the  lane,  they  once  more  shouted 
out  the  names  of  the  missing  men.  A  pause  ensued,  and  then  was 
heard  a  hollow  sepulchral  voice,  '  Bury  me,  bury  me,  ere  you  sleep, 
In  Peri  vale  Churchyard  ten  feet  deep.'  The  men,  trembling  in  every 
limb,  rushed  through  the  opening  and  discovered  the  dead  body  of 
the  old  man  on  the  other  side  of  the  palings !  The  mill  itself  was 
empty,  and  Simon  Coston  was  never  more  heard  of." 

Some  thirty  years  after  these  occurrences,  and  when  the  recollec- 
tion of  them  was  becoming  obliterated,  a  gentleman  purchased  an 
estate  at  Greenford  (Magna),  and  built  himself  a  fine  house  there. 
There  he  resided  with  his  lady  and  family,  and  curiously  enough  the 
name  of  the  new  proprietor  was  Simon  Coston.  Some  few  old  people 
thought  he  bore  some  resemblance  to  the  poor  youth  who  had  been 
so  strangely  missing,  but  this  was  mere  surmise,  and  no  one  could 
suppose  for  a  moment  that  the  wealthy  Squire  Coston  and  the  poor 
Greenford  foundling  could  have  aught  in  common.  Squire  Coston's 
family  died  before  him,  as  may  be  seen  by  the  very  handsome  and 
quaint  old  monument  in  Greenford  Church  (Magna).  The  old  gentle- 
man was,  however,  alive  in  1665,  for  he  then  gave  the  cover  for 
the  font,  which  is  now  in  Perivale  Church,  but  he  must  have  died 
soon  after.  On  looking  over  his  papers  his  executors  found  a  key  to 
the  mystery  of  the  mill,  and  they  discovered  also  that  the  deceased 
and  the  foundling  were  one  and  the  same. 

It  appeared  that  when  Simon  entered  the  mill  he  saw  at  a  glance 
how  things  stood  :  the  old  miser  had  been  arrested  by  the  hand  of 
death  in  the  very  act  of  counting  his  money,  and  being  a  quick- 
witted fellow,  Simon  hit  on  the  plan  of  frightening  the  folks  away 
from  the  place  and  then  securing  the  treasure  to  himself. 

As  we  have  seen,  this  he  did  most  successfully,  and  having  trans- 
ported the  dead  body  to  the  place  where  it  was  found,  he  removed  the 
money  from  the  mill  and  concealed  himself  until  the  second  search 
was  over,  which  he  knew  would  very  soon  be  made  ;  accordingly,  when 
the  neighbours  came  again,  he  uttered  the  doggrel  before  quoted, 
and  having  seen  the  persons  safe  off  with  the  old  miser's  body,  he 
decamped  in  the  opposite  direction  with  the  money.  Arrived  in  Lon- 
don, he  soon  after  took  ship  for  Flanders,  and,  being  a  prudent 
youth,  he  got  employment  in  a  merchant's  house,  and  by  his  dili- 
gence and  attention   eventually  became  a  partner.      "  He   married, 


and,  having  realised  a  handsome  fortune  (no  doubt  by  the  aid  of 
the  miser's  savings),  he  determined  to  return  and  enjoy  it  in  his 
native  place."  "  The  mansion  he  built  no  longer  exists,  as  it  was 
destroyed  by  fire,  but  the  fishpond  that  adorned  the  garden  and  the 
avenue  which  led  to  the  house  may  still  be  seen,  the  latter  being 
called  '  Cost  on' s  Lane  '  to  this  day.  Thus  ends  the  legend  of  the 
haunted  mill,  which  stood  on  what  was  ever  after  called  the  '  Devil's 
Plat.'  " 

How  much  truth  there  is  in  this  story  it  is  impossible  to  say,  but 
probably  it  may  have  some  foundation  in  fact,  however  small  may  be 
the  base  on  which  this  romantic  superstructure  is  reared.  This,  how- 
ever, is  certain,  as  shown  after  inquiries  made  at  Greenford  by  the 
writer,  that  there  are  among  the  poorer  people  of  that  village,  persons 
who  have  a  strong  objection  to  pass  through  Coston's  Lane  on  a  dark 
night,  for  fear  of  meeting  Coston's  ghost,  which  is  said  to  haunt  the 
grounds  of  the  old  house  which  has  long  since  been  levelled  to  the 
ground,  and  that  the  same  unearthly  visitor  is  supposed  more  fre- 
quently to  hover  about  the  old  pond  which  once  was  included  in  the 
demesne,  and  which  is  associated  in  some  mysterious  way  with  the 
later  destinies  of  Coston  and  his  family. 

One  old  man  declared  that  on  going  to  the  field  where  the  pond  is 
situated  to  collect  his  horses,  he  found  them  all  scared  and  trembling, 
showing  signs  of  great  terror,  and  while  he  was  getting  them  to- 
gether he  saw  "  something  white  "  hovering  over  the  miniature  lake, 
which  "  something  "  appears  to  have  been  terrified  too,  for  he  heard 
a  great  splash  as  it  jumped  into  the  water,  as  Coston  is  said  to  have 
done  over  two  hundred  and  thirty  years  ago.  The  piece  of  water,  now 
almost  covered  with  aquatic  j)Jants,  has  certainly  an  uncanny  appear- 
ance at  eventide,  when  a  mist  floats  above  it  and  bats  are  flying  in  its 
vicinity.  There  are  some  large  trees  about  it  which  cast  gloomy 
shadows,  but  what  adds  most  to  its  weird  aspect  is  several  very  old 
pollard-trees,  which  are  bent  and  contorted  in  different  directions  ; 
most  of  them  are  either  so  decayed  that  a  half  of  the  interior  of  the 
trunks  is  laid  open,  and  others  appear  to  have  been  struck  by  light- 
ning, and  now  hang  in  a  curiously  fantastic  way  over  the  pool. 
Whether  it  is  that  the  lakelet  is  in  a  sequestered  spot  away  from 
Coston's  Lane,  or  that  the  dismal-looking  trees  which  threaten  to  fall 
into  it  afford  a  suitable  home  for  the  "moping  owl,"  it  would  be  hard 


to  say ;  perhaps  both  causes  may  conduce  to  its  being  frequented  by 
the  bird  of  the  night,  and  that  it  often  startles  the  superstitious 
peasant  by  its  hoot  when  he — 

"  Molests  his  ancient  solitary  reign." 

The  place  has  certainly  a  weird  look  at  nightfall,  and  recalls  Poe's 
remarkable  verses  in  "  Ulalume  "  :  — 

' '  It  was  hard  by  the  dim  lake  of  Auber, 
In  the  misty  mid-region  of  Weir — 
It  was  down  by  dank  tarn  of  Auber. 
In  the  ghoul-haunted  woodland  of  "Weir." 

An  old  waggoner  who  had  lived  in  Green  ford  nearly  forty  years  said 
he  knew  many  people  who  "  dursen't  go  near  it  after  nightfall,  but  for 
his  part  he  had  been  by  there  at  night  hundreds  of  times,  and  never 
saw  anything  worse  than  hisself,"  which  still  leaves  the  character  of 
the  ghost  shrouded  in  mystery. 

Coston's  house  appears  to  have  been  burnt  down,  and  his  box  of 
plate  is  said  to  have  been  thrown  into  the  pond,  which  one  "  intelli- 
gent "  man  informed  the  writer  is  said  to  have  no  bottom.  He  is  said 
to  have  lost  his  wife  by  the  plague,  and  suffered  other  misfortunes, 
though  originally  so  rich  that  it  is  now  averred  his  riding  horses  "  were 
shod  with  silver." 

It  is  strange  that  such  traditions  and  superstitions  should  linger  so 
long  in  a  country  village.  Simon  Coston  has  been  dead  about  two  cen- 
turies and  a  quarter,  and  yet  it  is  supposed  his  shade  still — 

"  Revisits  the  glimpses  of  the  moon." 

Among  the  changes  which  have  taken  place  in  the  ground  about 
Perivale  Church  is  the  disappearance  of  an  old  wood  or  plantation, 
which  is  shown  to  the  south  of  it  in  Kocque's  Survey  of  Middlesex, 
made  in  1741-5. 

It  is  said  that  the  best  wheat  in  England  was  grown  in  the  vale 
south  of  Harrow-on-the-Hill,  and  "that  Queen  Elizabeth  and  Henry 
YIII.  had  their  farm  produce  froma  farm,  or  farms,  at  Perivale."  Others 
say  that  the  former  "  took  no  composition  from  the  villagers  there,  but 
received  it  in  kind  "  ;  and  that  the  place  is  called  Purevale  from  the 
"  clearness  "  of  the  corn  which  was  grown  there.  Perivale  was  sometimes 
called  Cornhill  or  Cornhull  in  the  reign  of  Edward  III.  and  later,  and 
its  reputation  for  producing  good   corn   had   apparently  then   been 


established.  Cornhill,  or  Cornhull,  was  probably  the  slope  of  Horsen- 
don  Hill.  The  reputation  of  Perivale  for  producing  the  finest  wheat 
in  his  day  (1563  to  1631)  has  been  preserved  in  the  poetical  descrip- 
tion of  England  entitled  the  "  Polyolbion,"  by  Drayton.  It  is  divided 
into  thirty  songs,  or  books,  of  which  the  one  in  which  allusion  is  made 
to  "  Perryvale,"  "  Perivale,"  or  "  Purevale  " — which,  he  says  in  a  note, 
"  yieldeth  the  finest  meal  of  England" — is  the  sixteenth.  It  is  very 

' '  As  Coin  come  on  along,  and  chanced  to  cast  her  eye 
Upon  that  neighbouring  hill  where  Harrow  stands  so  high,* 
She  Peryvale  perceived  prank' d  up  with  wreaths  of  wheat 
And  with  exulting  terms  thus  glorying  in  her  seat ; 
'  Why  should  not  I  be  coy  and  of  my  beauties  nice, 
Since  this  my  goodly  grain  is  held  of  greatest  price  ? 
No  manchet  can  so  well  the  courtly  palate  please 
As  that  made  of  the  meal  fetch'd  from  my  fertile  leaze. 
Their  finest  of  that  kind,  compared  with  my  wheat, 
For  whiteness  of  the  bread,  doth  look  like  common  cheat, 
"What  barley  is  there  found,  whose  fair  and  bearded  ear, 
Makes  stouter  English  ale  or  stronger  English  beer? 
The  oat,  the  bean,  the  pease,  with  me  but  pulses  are  ; 
The  coarser  and  browner  rye,  no  more  than  fetch  and  tare, 
What  seed  doth  any  soil  in  England  bring,  that  I 
Beyond  her  most  increase,  yet  cannot  multiply  ? 
Besides,  my  sure  abode  next  goodly  London  is, 
To  vend  my  fruitful  store,  that  we  doth  never  miss 
And  those  poor  baser  things,  they  cannot  put  away, 
How'er  I  set  my  price,  ne'er  on  my  chapmen  stay.' 
When  presently  the  hill  that  maketh  her  a  vale 
With  things  he  had  in  hand  did  interrupt  her  tale, 
With  Hampstead  being  fallen  and  High-gate  at  debate  ; 
As  one  before  them  both  that  would  advance  his  state, 
From  either  for  his  height  to  bear  away  the  praise, 
Besides  that  he  alone  rich  Peryvale  surveys. 
But  Hampstead  pleads,  himself  in  simples  to  have  skill, 
And  therefore  by  desert  to  be  the  noblest  hill ; 
As  one  that  on  his  worth  and  knowledge  doth  rely 
In  learned  physic's  use.  and  skilful  surgery  ; 
And  challengeth,  from  them,  the  worthiest  place  her  own 
Since  that  old  Watling  once  o'er  him  to  pass  was  known." 

*  It  is  stated  that  when  some  divines  were  disputing  before  Charles  II.  about  the  visible 
Church,  he  turned  their  attention  to  that  of  Harrow-on-the-Hill,  which  has  ever  since 
been  proverbially  called  the  visible  church. —  (Lysons'  "Environs.")  Harrow  Hill  "was 
chosen  by  William  Bolton,  the  last  Prior  of  Great  Bartholomew,  in  Smithfield,  on  which 
to  build  him  a  house  to  preserve  him  from  a  deluge  that  was  prognosticated  from  certain 
eclipses  in  watery  signs  and  was  to  happen  in  the  year  1524.  With  this  not  only  the 
vulgar  but  also  learned  men  were  so  unreasonablv  infatuated  that  they  victualled  them- 
selves (as  both  Hall  and  Speed  confidently  report)  and  went  to  high  ground  in  fear  of  bein°- 
drowned  !  Amongst  these  was  the  Prior,  who  not  only  provided  himself  with  a  house  there 
at  Harrow,  but  carried  all  sorts  of  provisions  which  were  thither  to  serve  for  the  space  of 
two  months." — (Camden's  "Britannia,"  translated  by  Edmund  Gibson,  p.  328.)  Stow, 
however,  contradicts  this  report  and  Lysons  says  he  was  also  Rector  of  Harrow. 


Some  idea  of  the  population  of  Perivale  in  the  last  century  may  be 
gathered  from  the  following  table.  The  earliest  baptism  recorded  is 
in  1707,  and  burial  in  1720.  It  is  not  possible  to  continue  the 
full  list  of  the  former  for  the  next  decade  from  the  register,  on 
account  of  the  pages  having  been  abstracted  between  1789  and  1807, 
as  already  mentioned. 

The  total  baptisms  from  1707  to  1786  were  as  follows  : — 

From  1707  to  1726  inclusive  .    .    .  28 

,,  1727  „  1746    „  ...  39 

„  1747  „  1766    „  ...  32 

„  1767  „  1786    „  ...  22 

The  total  burials  from  1720  to  1799  were  : — 

From  1720  to  1739  inclusive  .    .    .53 

„  1740  ,,  1769    „  ...  63 

„  1760  „  1779    ,,  ...  38 

,,  1780  ,,1799    ,,  ...  58 

There  are  no  burials  registered  between  1799  and  1802. 

Many  of  those  entered  here  were  not  parishioners  ;  some,  as  already 
stated,  were  of  persons  who  lived  in  London.  The  diminished  number 
of  baptisms  shows  the  hamlet  decreased  in  population  during  the  last 
fifty  years  of  the  above  record.  In  1795,  however,  there  were  five 
houses  in  Perivale,  and  in  1871  seven  habitations  with  thirty- three 
inhabitants.  In  1881  the  total  number  of  houses  was  seven,  also, 
with  a  population  of  thirty-four  people.  It  seems  that  the  population 
has  since  been  decreased  by  the  migration  of  a  man  and  his  wife  and 
eight  children  ;  such  a  withdrawal  would  have  caused  a  serious  reduc- 
tion in  the  amount  of  the  Poll  Tax  if  such  a  source  of  revenue  had 
still  existed.  Happily  there  is  no  fear  of  any  financial  difficulty  arising 
in  Perivale  on  that  account. 

About  three-quarters  of  a  mile  north-east  of  the  church,  in  the 
parish  of  Perivale,  and  north  of  the  canal,  there  is  an  ancient  earth- 
work and  moat,  the  age  of  which  is  not  known  though  it  appears  to 
be  of  considerable  antiquity. 

The  earthwork  is  of  irregular  quadrilateral  form  ;  the  fosse  now 
only  contains  water  on  the  south  side,  about  which  is  a  belt  of  trees  ; 
on  the  western  side  there  is  a  depression  leading  to  a  circular  hollow 
in  the  ground,  in  which  at  some  period  some  kind  of  structure  was 
placed.     About  a  foot  beneath  the  turf  a  bed  of  sandy  concrete  occurs, 


which  is,  no  doubt,  artificial,  and  suggests  that  the  spot  may  afterwards 
have  formed  the  site  of  a  windmill  at  Peri  vale,  perhaps  the  one  to 
which  allusion  has  been  made,  though  it  is  not  near  the  Brent. 

It  seems  too  hazardous  to  claim  for  this  moated  earthwork  the  high 
antiquity  which  appears  to  be  indicated  by  the  few  flakes  of  porce- 
lainized  flint  artificially  produced,  which  have  been  found  among  the 
roots  of  the  trees  and  in  molehills  at  this  spot,  though  enough  has 
been  discovered  to  make  it  desirable  that  a  cutting  through  the 
mound  should  be  made. 

Horsendon  Hill,  the  lower  slopes  of  which  are  in  the  parish  of 
Perivale,  is  a  naturally-formed  hill  of  London  clay  surmounted  by  a 
deposit  of  gravel  of  glacial,  or  possibly  of  pre-glacial,  age  (Westleton 
beds).  The  ascent  is  gradual  until  near  the  summit,  where  it  is  steep. 
A  magnificent  view  may  be  obtained  from  the  top,  extending  to  a 
distance  of  twenty-five  miles  to  the  south-south-east  and  south-west. 
There  are  traces  still  left  of  the  hill  having  been  rudely  fortified  at  a 
very  remote  period,  probably  at  a  time  before  written  history  began  : 
a  few  pieces  of  coarse  pottery,  hand-made  and  not  turned  in  a  lathe, 
as  well  as  some  flint  flakes  of  the  neolithic  age  have  been  found  near 
the  top.  The  name  of  the  hill,  "  Horsendon,"  or  "  Horsingdon," 
appears  to  indicate  that  it  was  occupied  in  very  remote  times  as  a  hill 
or  tribal  fort :  most  of  the  higher  hills  were  used  as  places  of  retreat 
in  the  inter-tribal  warfare  which  was  always  more  or  less  going  on  in 
the  newer  stone  age  and  long  afterwards,  as  shown  by  General  Pitt- 
Rivers  and  others.  At  such  times  the  families  of  the  tribe  were  safer 
on  the  hills  than  in  the  valleys,  while  the  higher  ground,  made  more 
secure  by  earthworks,  formed  good  positions  from  which  an  advancing 
hostile  tribe  could  be  seen,  or  from  which  a  successful  raid  could  be 
made.  There  are  two  terraces,  one  above  the  other,  facing  the  south, 
besides  the  broken  ground  at  the  top,  which  are  probably  artificially 
formed.  No  doubt  such  "  points  of  vantage  "  continued  in  use  after 
the  Roman  invasion,  even  into  the  Saxon  period. 

It  is  probable  that  Horsingdon  owes  its  name  to  the  conjunction  of 
two  words,  the  one  much  older  than  the  other,  the  concluding 
syllable  "don,"  being  the  Keltic  dun,  "  a  hill  fortress,"  as  in  Dunmore, 
Dunkeld,  &c,  and  Horsing  is  probably  Anglo-Saxon,  meaning  the  tribe 
(ing)  of  the  Hors.  In  numerous  places  in  England  we  have  evidence 
of  the  early  Saxon  occupation  of  the  country  in  the  names  of  towns 


and  villages  containing  ing,  signifying  clan  or  tribe,  such  as  Bickling- 
ton,  Lullington,  Henington,  Hardington,  &c.  These  places  are  situated 
near  Cadbury,  Somerset,  said  to  be  the  last  stronghold  of  the  British 
Kelts.  It  is  suggested  that  the  Hardings,  Sofings,  Babbings,  &c,  were 
early  Saxon  tribes,  and  that  when  they  settled  in  a  place  permanently 
the  suffix  "  ton,"  signifying  "  enclosure  or  town  "  (the  commonest  of 
our  English  names),  was  added  ;  but  Horsendon,  or  Horsingdon,  was 
more  probably  the  hill  fort  of  the  Horsings  or  Horsen.  Ing  is 
said,  however,  by  Worsaae  to  be  derived  from  the  Danish  enge,  a 
meadow.*  Canute  is  believed  to  have  encamped  his  forces  near  this  part 
of  Middlesex  previously  to  his  engagement  with  Edmund  Ironside,  by 
whom  he  was  afterwards  defeated  at  Brentford. 

A  Legend  of  Horsendon  Hill. 

Mr.  John  Farthing's  MSS.,  referred  to  in  other  places,  contains  a 
tradition  about  this  hill  in  which  the  mythical  hero  Horsa  is  intro- 
duced. He  says  tradition  assigns  this  mound  (perhaps  he  means  the 
broken  ground  at  the  top)  as  the  burial-place  of  Horsa,  a  bold  Saxon 
chief,  the  son  of  the  king  of  this  part  of  Britain,  who,  from  his  resi- 
dence on  the  top  of  the  neighbouring  hill,f  was  called  "  Harro  of  the 
Hill."  "  The  wife  of  Horsa  was  supposed  to  be  gifted  with  supernatural 
powers,  and  from  her  performing  her  magic  ceremonies  and  revels 
with  her  elfin  companions  in  the  vale  below,  it  took  the  name  cf 
•  Fairy  Vale,'  or  Peri-vale.  Horsa  and  his  spouse  had  but  one  child, 
a  most  beautiful  and  highly-gifted  daughter,  who  was  called  Ealine  (Yil- 
linge).  Her  mother  taught  her  so  admirably  that  she  was  in  those 
days  esteemed  a  prodigy  of  learning.  The  fame  of  her  beauty  and 
talents  brought  many  suitors  for  her  hand,  but  no  one  was  so  fortunate 
in  obtaining  her  love  as  a  neighbouring  chief  called  Bren,  who  com- 
manded a  powerful  tribe  on  the  banks  of  the  Thames.  He  sent 
ambassadors  to  demand  her  in  marriage,  and  after  due  negotiation  he 
was  accepted  by  her  parents.      The  joining  of  hands  over  the  holy 

*  "  Danes  and  Norwegians,"  T.  T.  A.  Worsaae,  1852. 

t  "In  some  old  English  records  Harrow  is  called  '  Hare  we  atte  Hull '  (or  Hill),  but  in 
the  most  ancient  documents  it  is  called  Herges,  a  name  probably  derived  from  the  Saxon 
word  Hearge,  Hergh  or  Herige,  which  is  sometimes  translated,  a  troop  of  soldiers  and  some- 
times, a  church."  Lysons,  who  is  here  quoted,  thinks  the  latter  derivation  the  more  prob- 
able, and  that  there  may  have  been  a  church  on  the  hill  before  the  Norman  Conquest 
which  would  have  been  a  prominent  feature  in  this  part  of  the  county.  He  says  Herga 
super  montem  was  the  ancient  Latin  name  of  the  place. 


stone  within  the  magic  circle  was  performed  with  great  pomp  and 
ceremony  according  to  the  rites  of  Odin,  the  Saxon  Deity,  and  after  a 
festival  of  many  days'  duration,  Bren  carried  home  his  beauteous  prize 
to  his  own  castle. 

"  This  union  proved  unfortunate,  for  the  lady  was  too  learned  for 
her  ignorant  husband,  who  slighted  her  for  those  less  refined  com- 
panions whose  tastes  and  sentiments  were  more  in  accordance  with 
his  own  sensual  disposition.  Ealine  (Yillinge),  finding  herself  thus 
deserted  and  dishonoured,  vowed  revenge  on  her  faithless  husband, 
and  having  a  favourite  starling  which  she  had  herself  reared  and 
taught  to  speak  when  a  child,  she  completed  its  tuition  and  then  set 
the  bird  at  liberty,  well  knowing  it  would  seek  its  native  vale.  The 
winged  messenger  flew  back  as  conjectured,  and  having  discovered 
Horsa,  alighted  on  his  shoulder  and  told  the  tale  taught  him  by  its 
mistress.  The  fiery  chieftain  immediately  assembled  his  warriors  and 
prepared  to  avenge  his  child  by  the  signal  chastisement  of  his  brutal 
son-in-law.  Bren,  however,  got  intelligence  of  Horsa's  intention,  and 
having  summoned  his  vassals,  crossed  the  river  with  all  his  forces. 
The  two  armies  met  and  crossed  at  the  ford  which  has  ever  since  borne 
his  name.  Here  Bren  was  slain  and  Horsa  mortally  wounded ;  but 
notwithstanding  his  condition,  he  ordered  his  men  to  carry  him  over 
the  river,  and  having  ravaged  Bren's  country  with  fire  and  sword,  he 
brought  away  his  daughter  in  triumph,  and  great  spoil  besides.  Horsa 
died  of  his  wounds  soon  afterwards  and  was  buried  with  great  pomp, 
along  with  his  arms  and  favourite  war-horse,  by  his  people  on  this 
spot,  who,  in  commemoration  of  his  valour,  raised  over  his  remains 
the  tumulus  or  mound  in  question,  which  has  ever  since  borne  his 
name,  although  corrupted  to  the  words  '  Horsendon '  or  'Horsington.' 

"  Ealine  (or  Yillinge)  and  her  mother,  both  being  widows,  retired  to 
the  recesses  of  the  adjoining  forest,  where  they  bewailed  their  sad  loss 
and  devoted  themselves  to  study.  They  lived,  it  is  said,  to  a  great 
age,  and  Avere  almost  worshipped  by  the  rude  people  about  them  for 
their  sanctity  and  learning.  Ealine  (or  Yillinge)  survived  her  mother, 
and,  at  her  decease,  was  buried  on  the  spot  where  she  had  so  long 
lived  and  at  length  found  a  final  resting-place.  This,  in  remembrance 
of  her  virtues,  was  called  '  Ealine's  (or  Yillinge's)  Haven,'  by  which 
name  it  is  to  this  day  known.  Great  cures  have  been  performed  by 
the  waters   in   the  vicinity.      She    was,    after   the   introduction    of 


Christianity,  canonized  by  the  name  of  Helena,  and  her  portrait  may 
still  be  seen  in  stained  glass  in  one  of  the  windows  in  Perivale  Church  ; 
she  is  represented  with  a  book  in  her  hand,  in  allusion,  no  doubt,  to 
her  wisdom  and  learning." 

"  Even  now,"  says  the  narrator,  "  the  affrighted  peasant,  as  he 
hastily  passes  round  the  brow  of  the  hill  at  the  witching  hour  of  night, 
fancies  he  hears  the  solemn  tread  of  Horsa's  giant  steed  as  he  paces 
round  the  place  of  his  sepulture  ;  and  some  go  so  far  as  to  affirm  they 
have  seen  the  shadowy  form  of  the  dead  warrior  when  the  pale  moon 
illumines  the  hill,  and  the  white  mists  curl  upwards  from  the  vale  at 
its  foot.  For  the  satisfaction  of  my  readers,"  he  says,  "  I  can  boldly 
aver  that,  although  I  have  been  on  its  summit  both  late  and  early,  I 
have  never  seen  aught  there  worse  than  myself." 

Such  is  the  legend  of  Horsendon  Hill.  Whether  it  is  "one  of  the 
traditions  which"  Mr.  Farthing  says  he  "gleaned  from  the  memories  of 
aged  persons,"  and  whether  it  was  ever  extant  in  the  locality  to  the  full 
extent  he  has  narrated,  or  drawn  more  or  less  from  the  depths  of  his 
powerful  imagination,  must  for  ever  remain  an  open  question. 

It  is  a  fact,  however,  that  there  were,  early  in  this  century,  remains 
of  old  painted  glass  in  the  side  windows  of  the  church,  which  had 
suffered  even  more  injury  than  those  in  the  chancel,  and  among  them, 
about  the  period  at  which  the  legend  was  written  (1845),  was  one 
representing  the  figure  drawn  so  carefully  by  Mr.  Farthing,  and  which 
probably  represented  a  saint  of  the  Romish  Church. — (See  page  67.) 
It  is  true,  too,  that  Haven  Green  is  called  Ealing's  or  Eling's  Haven  in 
the  old  maps.  Nothing,  as  far  as  the  writer  knows,  has  been  seen  of 
late  years  of  "  the  shadowy  form  of  the  dead  warrior,"  but  he  was 
gravely  informed  that  on  Greenford  Marsh,  on  the  north  of  the  Green - 
ford  Road,  a  very  remarkable  phenomenon  was  noticed  a  few  years 
ago  by  several  people  and  commented  on  :  i.e.,  on  a  winter's  morning, 
when  the  ground  was  covered  with  hoar  frost,  the  footprints  of  a  large 
animal,  apparently  going  in  the  direction  of  Horsendon  Hill,  were 
observed,  and  though  the  field  was  of  the  usual  frosty  hue,  the  grass 
in  the  impressions  of  the  hoofs  "  was  scorched  of  a  bluish  tint." 
The  question  is  not  yet  settled  whether  the  difference  of  colour  was 
due  to  the  fiery  feet  of  Horsa's  steed  or  to  unequal  condensation  due 
to  causes  which  may  be  easily  explained. 


"  All  things  must  change 
To  something  new,  to  something  strange  ; 
For  nothing  that  is  can  pause  or  stay  ; 
The  moon  will  wax,  the  moon  will  wane ; 
The  mist  and  cloud  will  turn  to  rain, 
The  rain  to  mist  and  cloud  again, 
To-morrow  be  to-day." — Longfellow. 

The  registers  of  the  births,  deaths,  and  marriages,  and  the  records  of 
the  meetings  of  vestries  are  not  exciting  compilations,  though  the 
three  first  have  their  attractions  to  Dryasdust,  the  genealogist,  in 
filling  up  pedigrees,  and  may  be  even  fascinating  to  the  claimant  to 
the  traditional  "  lost  estate  "  when  he  fancies  among  the  names  and 
dates  he  may  find  the  connecting  links  of  the  chain  which  is  to 
bring  him  fortune. 

But  old  parish  records  are  often  interesting  to  the  ordinary  reader, 
on  account  of  the  incidents  which  are  occasionally  alluded  to  beyond 
the  mention  of  names  of  persons  who  are  chronicled  in  each  division 
in  succession  as  babies  ushered  into  the  world,  as  married,  and,  finally, 
as  buried  "  in  woollen  "  according  to  the  Act,  or  otherwise,  and,  then, 
how  quickly  they  are  followed  in  the  same  course  by  their  children 
and  grandchildren,  until  the  procession  of  human  life  and  the  con- 
tinuity of  its  story  becomes  saddening. 

Truly  there  is  much  matter  for  contemplation  in  a  parish  register. 
Who  can  read  the  old  records  of  weddings,  births,  and  deaths  without 
for  a  moment  pausing  "to  cast  a  look  behind"?  If  we  could  bring 
before  our  mental  vision  some  of  the  varied  groups  of  people  who, 
in  succession,  for  some  hundreds  of  years  have  stood  before  the  altar 
of  our  little  church,  how  strange  would  they  appear  to  us  now ;  how 
pictureque  and  quaint  would  be  the  dress  of  the  bride  and  bridegroom 
if  we  could  clothe  them  in  the  fashion  of  the  times  when  some  of 
these  entries  were  made. 


The  roll  is  inscribed  by  people  of  many  degrees  of  importance. 
What  a  varied  pageant  would  that  long  list  give  us !  Yet  it  matters 
not  whether  the  picture  we  conjure  up  is  of  knights,  esquires,  farmers, 
or  peasants,  titled  gentlewomen,  the  lady  of  the  village,  or  the  little 
village  maiden  of  low  degree  :  my  lady  or  the  simple  daughter  of  the 
soil  plighted  her  troth  at  the  altar  with  the  same  love  in  her  heart  as 
that  which  fills  the  breast  and  blushes  on  the  veiled  cheeks  of  the 
bride  of  to-day.  But  a  little  while  and  the  group  is  altered,  and  a 
new  life  is  added  to  it,  associated  with  all  the  pride,  tenderness,  and 
maternal  self-denial  which  follows  the  incoming  into  this  mysterious 
world  of  one  of  the  most  helpless  of  beings.  The  present  is  but  the 
echo  of  the  past  with  a  very  slight  difference.  Love  and  sorrow  are 
the  contemporaries  of  all  times  ;  they  are,  in  a  sense,  ever  young.  A 
brief  period  elapses  and  the  chronicle  tells  us  of  another  event,  which 
affects  the  little  group  that  filled  up  the  picture,  and  the  same  bitter 
tears  as  are  shed  to-day,  mark  the  entrance  into  the  little  church  of 
the  father,  mother,  or  child.  Then  there  is  the  blank  which  is  such 
a  mystery !  and  the  green  mound  of  the  village  burial-place,  where — 

"  All  human  love  and  hate 
Find  one  gad  level ;  where  soon  or  late 
Wronged  and  wrong- doer,  each  with  meekened  face, 
And  cold  hands  folded  over  a  still  heart, 
Pass  the  green  threshold  of  our  common  grave, 
Whither  all  footsteps  tend,  whence  none  depart." 

How  much  of  love,  sorrow,  joy,   hope,  virtue,   and  sin  is  covertly 
hidden  in  the  pages  of  the  parish  register ! 

The  rector  has  kindly  allowed  the  writer  to  examine  the  two 
books  which  contain  the  earliest  records,  as  already  mentioned.  The 
later  register  has  not  been  examined.  The  oldest  register,  an  oblong 
book  with  vellum  leaves,  shows  the  record  of  deaths  to  have  com- 
menced in  1707,  and  that  of  the  births  and  marriages  in  1720. 
Inside  the  cover  is  a  copy  of  the  words  of  the  bequest  of  Robert 
Cromwell,  of  the  parish  of  Paddington  (contained  in  his  will,  dated 
September  10,  1722),  as  follows  : — "And  also  upon  further  trust  that 
the  said  John  Cromwell,  my  Brother,  and  his  heirs  shall  pay  out  of 
the  said  estate  (lands  in  Heys  in  Middlesex)  yearly  and  every  year, 
on  every  Christmas  Day,  to  the  Minister  or  Parson  of  the  said  parish 
of  Perivale  and  his  successors,  Vicars  or  Parsons  of  the  said  Parish, 
for  ever  Six  Pounds  in  consideration  that  he  and  they  preach  a  Ser- 


mon  in  the  Parish  Church  of  Perivale  in  the  afternoon  of  the  first 
Sunday  in  every  month,  and  not  otherwise.  The  first  Sermon  to 
begin  and  to  be  made  as  soon  as  the  Vicar  or  Parson  shall  have 
notice  or  knowledge  thereof  after  the  decease  of  my  said  Wife,  and 
the  first  payment  to  be  made  him  on  the  first  Christmas  Day  that 
shall  happen  next  after  her  decease."  How  long  the  payment  and 
the  sermon  have  been  in  abeyance  it  is  impossible  to  know,  but 
probably  before  the  commencement  of  the  present  century. 

It  has  already  been  mentioned  that  the  Cromwells  here  alluded  to 
were  probably  of  the  same  family  as  the  Protector,  and  it  may  be 
useful  to  those  who  should  attempt  to  determine  the  matter  to  know 
that  the  following  are  the  entries  referring  to  the  Cromwells  in  the 
register.  Between  1720  and  1812  they  appear,  like  the  baptisms,  to 
have  been  transcribed  by  the  rector,  Richard  Mills,  from  an  older 
record  "  taken  by  Mr.  William  Brownbill,  Rector  of  the  said  Parish," 
in  1719,  giving  the  date  of  burial.* 

"  1720,  June.     Elizabeth  Cromwell,  of  the  parish  of  Micham,  Surrey. 
1723,  Dec.  30.     Robert  Cromwell,  and  Margaret,  his  wife. 

1727,  Sept.  27.     Sarah  Cromwell,  the  wife  of  John  Cromwell,  of  Micham  in  Surrey. 

1728,  May  7.     E.  Cromwell,  the  daughter  of  John  Cromwell,  of  Hayes." 

*  With  reference  to  the  Cromwells  of  Perivale,  and  their  possible  connection  with  a 
family  of  the  same  name  settled  at  Ealing,  though  at  an  earlier  date,  a  letter  appeared  in 
the  West  Middlesex  Standard,  of  February  15,  1890,  signed  "A  Genealogist,"  which  fur- 
nishes some  interesting  information,  as  follows  : — "  In  the  suit  Cromwell  v.  Cromwell  (see 
Chancery  proceedings,  Mitford,  335,  51),  the  bill  recites  the  will  of  Walter  Cromwell, 
senior,  of  Ealing,  yeoman,  who  was  father  of  the  parties.  By  this,  which  was  dated 
16th  July,  1668,  he  devises  'Hangers'  to  his  son,  John  Cromwell;  an  annuity  of  £40 
to  his  wife  Margaret ;  and  to  his  son  Walter  an  annuity  of  £7,  and  5s.  a  week ;  this 
Walter,  the  son,  had  a  daughter,  Margaret ;  the  elder  Walter  had  a  daughter,  Jane,  who 
married  William  Godwin,  and  a  grandchild,  Henry  Godwin  :  he  bequeathed  to  the  poor  of 
Ealing  £10,  to  be  paid  within  six  months  of  his  death,  and  gave  his  residence  to  his  son, 
John  Cromwell.  The  executors  were  Edward  Millet,  of  Hanwell,  yeoman,  and  Joseph 
Wade,  of  Ealing,  scrivener.  The  legacy  to  Walter  Cromwell  was  directed  to  be  paid  to 
Edward  Millet  at  his  own  house,  and  to  be  applied  by  bim  for  the  use  of  Walter  Cromwell. 
Walter,  who  was  the  eldest  son,  disputes  his  father's  will,  alleging  he  was  not  sane  at  the 
date  of  making  it."  The  result  of  this  Chancery  suit,  brought  in  1680,  is  not  stated.  It  is 
well  to  mention  also,  for  the  information  of  those  interested  in  the  Cromwell  pedigree,  that 
George  Cromwell  (signed  Crumwell) ,  of  Eling,  Middlesex,  bachelor,  30,  and  Elizabeth  Bolles, 
spinster,  21,  daughter  of  Thomas  Bolles,  of  Wallington,  Herts,  Esquire,  "  who  consents," 
were  married  at  St.  Sepulchre's  (St.  Bartholomew  the  Great  or  Less),  London,  on  6th  Aug., 
1663. —  Vide  Colonel  Chester's  "London  Marriage  Licences,"  1521-1869  (Quaritch). 

William  Granger,  editor  of  "The  Museum  and  Extraordinary  Magazine,"  published  in 
1804,  a  very  curious  old  book,  after  giving  an  account  of  Mrs.  Bridget  Bendish,  grand- 
daughter of  the  Protector,  says  Richard  Cromwell,  the  Protector's  son,  died  at  Cheshunt, 
Herts,  July  13,  1712,  aged  86,  and  "that  the  son  of  bis  son  Oliver,  named  William 
Cromwell,  the  great-grandson  of  the  Protector,  died  in  Kirby  Street,  Hatton  Garden, 
unmarried,  July,    1772,  aged   85";    and  writing  in   1804,  he  states  that   "Mr.   Oliver 

i  2 


They  are,  with  one  exception,  described,  like  others,  up  to  a  certain 
date  as  buried  in  woollen.  This  was  in  consequence  of  an  Act 
passed  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II. ,  an  enactment  which  remained  in 
the  statute-book  for  one  hundred  and  twenty  years,  and  by  it  no 
body  could  be  buried  in  "anything  made  or  mingled  with  flax,  hemp, 
silk,  hair,  gold  or  silver,  or  any  stuff  or  thing  other  than  what  is 
made  of  sheep's  wool  only,"  on  pain  of  £5  fine,  and  an  affidavit 
had  to  be  made  for  this  purpose  either  to  the  magistrate  or  the  officia- 
ting minister.  Nevertheless,  in  several  cases  at  Perivale  the  enactment 
was  disobeyed,  and  the  rector  had  to  record  that  he  had  not  received 
an  affidavit ;  it  was  so  in  the  case  of  Robert  Cromwell  and  Margaret, 
his  wife,  mentioned  above.  In  the  case  of  Ann  Lateward,  of  Ealing, 
who  died  in  1779,  a  penalty  seems  to  have  been  paid,  as  it  is  written — 
"she  was  buried  in  Linen,  for  which  the  undertaker  paid  50/,  which 
was  distributed  among  the  poor." 

The  exportation  of  English  wool  had  been  the  subject  of  various 
Acts  since  Edward  III.  In  1660  the  export  of  wool  was,  after  many 
oscillations  between  permission  to  export,  partial  prohibition,  and 
actual  prohibition,  finally  made  penal ;  and  as  the  production  of 
wool  exceeded  the  consumption  the  price  felL  The  Act  referring  to 
burials  was  one  of  the  very  remarkable  expedients  resorted  to  for 
stimulating  the  demand  for  English  woollen  manufactures. 

Of  course,  like  every  other  parish  register,  the  one  at  Perivale  con- 
tained entries  such  as  a  "  wayfaring  man  "  or  "  a  pauper  "  was  "  buried 
in  woollen  " — poor  outcasts,  who  died  without  friends  in  some  barn  or 
outhouse.  The  brevity  of  the  entries  reminds  us  of  Hood's  well- 
known  lines : — 

"  Rattle  his  bones  over  the  stones : 
He's  only  a  pauper  who  nobody  owns." 

The  following  entry  shows  that  at  that  time  robberies  by  highway- 
men occurred  in  the  vicinity  of  Perivale  and  Ealing.  From  the 
register  it  appears  there  were  several  families  of  Verreys  in  Perivale, 
and  that  they  had  been  settled  there  for  some  generations. 

"  174f.  Samuel  Verrey,  Farmer  :  He  was  set  upon  by  two  foot 
pads  on  Saturday  night  last  abount  7  of  ye  clock  near  Castle-bear 

Cromwell,  an  attorney  in  the  Million  Bank  office,  and  Mr.  Thomas  Cromwell,  now  in  the 
East  Indies,  sons  of  Thomas  Cromwell,  of  Snow  Hill,  and  the  Protector's  great-grandsons, 
are  the  only  survivors  of  his  male  line." 


Hill,  &  on  making  some  resistence  was  shot  by  one  of  ym  thro'  ye 
body  :  of  which  wound  he  languish'd  till  Monday  morning  and  then 
expired.      Bd  in  Woolen,  as  per  affidavit  received." 

A  small  "  broadsheet "  is  in  the  possession  of  one  of  the  unfor- 
tunate man's  descendants,  dated  January  24,  1747,  which  gives — 

"  A  full  and  particular  account  of  the  Apprehending  and  Taking 
of  William  Groves  &  Noah  Groves  for  the  barbarous  Murder  of 
Samuel  Yerrey,  a  Substantial  Farmer  of  Oxendon  Hill  [sic]  in  the 
Parish  of  Perrivale,  who  going  home  last  Saturday  night  about 
7  o'clock,  was  attacked  close  by  the  empty  house  by  Castle-bear,  late 
in  the  possession  of  Dr  Hollings,  near  the  Uxbridge  Road,  with  the 
whole  examination  before  the  Right  Hon.  the  Worshipful  Justice 
Clithero,  and  their  commitment  last  night,  the  one  to  Newgate,  the 
other  to  New  Prison." 

It  appears  from  the  evidence  that  Verrey  and  his  son  were  riding 
"  near  the  sign  of  '  Ye  Feathers,' "  and  the  farmer  had  passed  the 
robbers,  but  seeing  his  son  stopped  by  them,  he  rode  back  and  struck 
one  of  them  a  violent  blow,"  when  the  other  villain  shot  him  in  the 
breast,  and  robbed  him  of  part  of  his  money.  The  dangerous  condi- 
tion of  the  highroads  about  Ealing  and  Perivale  at  that  time,  and 
the  dread  which  accompanied  a  journey  of  a  few  miles,  even  when 
the  traveller  was  mounted,  is  manifest  from  the  sequel  :  Verrey 
"  settled  his  affairs  and  earnestly  desired  all  people  to  be  cautious  of 
travelling  late  or  making  any  defence  if  attacked  by  such  villains." 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  Rectors,  from  1706  to  the  present 
time,  with  the  year  of  the  death  of  such  as  were  buried  in  Perivale 
Churchyard,  as  shown  in  the  register. 

It  may  be  mentioned  that  the  last  rector  noticed  in  Newcourt's 
list  (see  p.  51),  is  Richard  Ward,  who  was  rector  in  1700.  No  doubt 
he  was  succeeded  by  Beard,  who  was  rector  in  1705.  The  following 
names  appear  to  make  the  list  consecutive  : — 

"  William  Brownbill rector,  presented,  1706  ;  died,  1719. 

Richard  Mills „  „  1719;      „      1746. 

Richard  Badcock  Shury rector  in  1783  ;     ,,      1789. 

James  Maidman „         1790;      ,,      1809. 

William  Pearson „         1810;  resigned.  1812. 

Frederick  James  Lateward  (son  of  the  patron)     .  ,,         1812  ;  died,  1861  (?) 

(The  Rev.  Dr.  Giles  was  curate  in  charge  during  the  latter  part  of  this  period.) 
Charles  J.  Hughes,  LL.D.,  rector,  presented  in  1861,  present  incumbent." 


Doubtless,  if  an  older  register  had  been  extant,  it  would  be  found 
that  many  of  the  old  rectors,  besides  those  mentioned,  were  buried 
in  the  little  churchyard,  and  that  there  was  many  a  one  before — 

"  Who  in  yonder  pile  his  voice  was  heard  to  sound, 
But  now  his  body  rests  beneath  its  hallowed  ground." 

Between  1750  and  1783  the  following  clergymen  officiated  at  the 
church,  but  the  larger  part  of  the  duty  was  taken  by  the  Rev.  A. 
Cookson ;  Philip  Fletcher,  Dean  of  Kildare ;  Charles  Cuthbert, 
"  clerk" ;  A.  Cookson,  Rector  of  Newton,  Lincolnshire  ;  C.  Ayleway, 
Curate  of  Ealing  ;  John  Dodson  ;  Charles  Campbell,  curate ;  J.  Hig- 
gate  ;  R.  Shury,  curate  ;  J.  Willis,  clerk  :  J.  Robinson,  curate,  and 
Robert  Winkle,  "  minister." 

It  is  noticeable  that  in  the  last  century,  as  in  this,  many 
persons  who  resided  in  London,  or  at  a  distance  elsewhere,  were 
brought  to  Perivale  for  interment  in  the  graveyard  of  the  little 
church ;  among  such  are  John  Arnold,  of  St.  John's,  Clerkenwell,  in 
1730  ;  John  Roy  Arnold,  of  St.  Bridget's,  London,  1742  ;  Augustus 
Arnold,  of  St.  Sepulchre's,  London,  1743  ;  Mathew  Cockett,  of  St.  An- 
drew's, Holborn,  1732,  and  others  from  Stepney, Westminster,  &c. ;  also 
Philip  Fletcher,  Dean  of  Kildare.  He  appears  to  have  had  the  right 
of  presentation  to  the  living,  and  to  have  occasionally  officiated  in 
the  church.  Dean  Fletcher  was  the  brother  of  the  Bishop  of  Kildare, 
and  the  author  of  a  poem  entitled  "  Truth  at  Court,"  which  was 
much  read  at  the  time,  but  which  has  now  passed  into  oblivion.  He 
also  wrote  another  poem  called  "  Nature  and  Fortune,"  which,  though 
quoted  in  Dodsley's  "Collection"  (ed.  1782),  has  not  escaped  the 
same  fate.  Of  the  other  Fletchers,  Mrs.  Frances  Fletcher  was  interred 
here  in  1768,  and  Frances  Fletcher,  of  Crowold,  in  1776.  There  are 
also  other  entries  than  those  whose  monuments  have  been  mentioned, 
referring  in  like  manner  to  the  Harrisons  and  Latewards,  and  those 
families  with  whom  they  intermarried,  as  the  Clerkes,  Fullers,  &c. 

Among  those  whose  names  are  in  the  register  of  burials  is  that  of 
George  Augustus  Elliott,  of  Ealing,  eldest  son  of  Lord  Heathfield,  the 
gallant  defender  of  Gibraltar  (died  in  1753).  Lord  Heathfield  lived 
for  years  on  Castlebar  HilL 

It  is  curious  to  note  among  the  marriages  in  the  church  at  Peri- 
vale, the  number  of  instances  in  which  both  parties  came  from  a 
distance,  and  were  married  by  licence.    Some  of  those  who  sought  the 


seclusion  of  the  '*  church  with  no  name,"  to  take  the  new  vows  were 
widowers.  Thus,  in  1740,  Richard  Weedon,  of  St.  John's,  Wapping, 
widower,  married  Mary  Styles,  of  Hillingdon,  spinster,  by  licence. 
Some  of  the  names  conjoined  in  the  entries  are  of  persons  bearing  cog- 
nomens identified  with  the  previous  history  of  the  parish  and  advow- 
son.  Thus,  in  1727  John  Howard,  of  Harrow,  married  Sarah  Millet, 
of  this  parish.  In  1737  Edward  Clerke,  of  New  Inn,  Middlesex, 
married  Mrs.  Jane  Harrison,  by  licence.  In  1740  Harry  Johnson, 
of  St.  Augustine's,  London,  married  Betty  Atlee,  of  Hillingdon,  by 
licence;  and  in  1750  Simon  Fuller  Wykes,  of  St.  Sepulchre's,  Lon- 
don, married  Mrs.  Susanna  Harrison,  by  licence.  1757,  John  Fuller, 
widower,  and  Elizabeth  Knight,  spinster,  both  of  this  parish,  married 
by  licence,  by  Philip  Fletcher,  Dean  of  Kildare.  In  1758  William 
Wroughton,  of  Halton,  Bucks,  bachelor,  and  Dorothy  Musgrove,  of 
St.  Mary,  Oxon,  were  married.  The  last  entry  is  like  some  others, 
which  look  very  like  "  runaway  matches." 

It  is  not  pleasing  to  record  that  the  register  of  Perivale  Church, 
like  that  of  so  many  other  churches,  has  been  sadly  mutilated,  and 
obviously  for  the  purpose  of  destroying  the  evidence  it  would  have 
afforded.  The  parchment  leaves  have  been  abstracted,  containing  the 
baptisms  between  May,  1789,  and  August,  1807;  and  a  portion  of 
the  leaf,  containing  a  marriage  on  each  page,  between  1793  and  1798, 
has  been  taken  off.  The  pages  have  been  cut  out  neatly  with  scissors. 
How  could  such  an  act  be  committed  without  the  knowledge  or 
negligence  of  the  rector  who  had  charge  of  the  book  at  the  early 
part  of  this  century  ? 

Such  excisions  to  destroy  the  evidence  of  a  marriage  were  not 
uncommon  among  the  chaplains  to  the  Fleet  Prison,  as  the  following 
extract  shows,  but  are  quite  unexpected  at  Perivale : — 

"  '  Would  you  readily  marry  me  if  I  had  a  partner  at  hand,  or  get 
me  married  just  now?'  inquires  a  citizen  of  Farringdon  Within  to 
the  clerk  and  registrar  of  the  Fleet.  '  Of  course  we  could,  sir,'  says 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Symson ;  '  and  if  you  are  at  a  loss  for  a  partner,  we  can 
find  you  one  directly — a  widow  with  a  handsome  jointure — a  bloom- 
ing virgin  of  19;'  and  here  he  comes  close  and  whispers,  '■  If  you 
don't  like  her,  there  is  no  harm  done — tear  out  the  entry — you 
understand.'  "  * 

*  Knight's  ''London." 


"  I  hold  the  world  but  as  the  world — 
A  stage,  where  every  man  must  play  a  part." 

Merchant  of  Venice. 

Unpretending  as  is  the  church  and  hamlet  of  Perivale,  it  could 
boast  of  a  parish  clerk  in  1861,  when  the  present  rector  entered 
upon  his  duties.  His  name  was  Cain,  and  he  was  sexton  as  well  as 
clerk,  and  he  held  these  offices  even  longer  than  the  gravedigger  in 
Hamlet,  who  had  "  been  sexton  here,  man  and  boy,  thirty  year," 
for,  in  fact,  Cain  had  been  sexton  and  parish  clerk  for  fifty  years. 
His  long  service  is  recorded,  with  his  death  at  the  age  of  eighty-three, 
upon  a  small  wooden  cross  in  that  part  of  the  churchyard  which 
appears  to  have  been  set  aside  for  the  parishioners,  as  shown  by  the 
inscriptions  on  the  headstones,  or  where  "  no  frail  memorial "  meets 
the  eye  but — 

"  Heaves  the  turf  in  many  a  mouldering  heap. 
Each  in  his  narrow  cell  for  ever  laid, 
The  rude  forefathers  of  the  hamlet  sleep  " — 

the  honest  farmers — the  Westmores,  Barnjums,  Trustrums,  Smiths, 
Gibsons,  &c. — who  paid  the  tithe  and  governed  the  parish  to  the 
best  of  their  ability. 

"  Oft  did  the  harvest  to  their  sickle  yield, 

Their  furrow  oft  the  stubborn  glebe  has  broke. 
How  jocund  did  they  drive  their  team  afield  ; 

How  bowed  the  woods  beneath  their  sturdy  stroke  !  " 

"  Old  Cain,"  as  he  was  called,  was  considered  very  eccentric,  but 
eccentricity  is  often  but  another  name  for  simplicity,  and  simplicity 
is  becoming  a  rare  virtue  in  these  days.  Divine  service  had  been 
conducted  in  most  of  Cain's  time  in  a  very  primitive  manner, 
though  probably  not  the  less  sincere  on  the  part  of  the  few  who 
"  were  gathered  together "  ;  albeit,  it  is  not  surprising  that  the 
worthy  old  clerk  found  it  difficult  to  fall  into  new-fangled  altera- 


tions,  which  he  could  not  understand,  and  some  very  curious  anec- 
dotes are  related  of  him.  It  was  no  uncommon  thing  for  the  old 
man  to  be  seen  in  such  a  position  as  to  command  a  view  of  the  path 
from  Ealing  while  the  rector  was  preparing  for  the  morning  service, 
and  hear  the  former  shout  out :  "  Can't  see  no  congregations 
a-coming  along,  sir.     May  I  put  the  books  up  ?  " 

Among  the  old  servants  in  the  church  was  the  hand  barrel-organ, 
which  for  many  years  had  done  duty  and  done  its  best  to  keep  the 
"  congregations  "  in  time  when  they  sang  ;  but  alas  !  the  same  fate 
which  is  the  lot  of  mankind  in  their  old  age,  at  last  overtook  that 
venerable  musical  instrument  —  it  lost  many  of  the  teeth  which 
enabled  it  to  pour  forth  its  volume  of  sound ;  it  had  never  been  of 
the  sweetest,  and  the  harsh,  grating  roll  of  the  toothless  notes  did 
not  conduce  to  the  harmony  of  the  singing.  With  the  advent  of 
the  Rev.  Dr.  Hughes  came  improvements  in  many  directions,  includ- 
ing the  music — among  them  the  institution  of  matins  and  evensong. 
The  simple  rustic  had  never  heard  of  such  services,  and,  though  it 
may  seem  to  the  reader  to  be  an  invention  on  the  writer's  part,  he 
can  give  the  best  authority  for  saying  that  the  clerk  and  sexton 
asked  the  new  rector  whether  it  was  not  Mr.  Matins  who  wrote  the 
music  in  use  in  the  services.  After  this  it  is  easy  to  believe  that 
the  old  man  became  the  victim  of  a  joke  played  by  some  boys  in  a 
school  kept  by  the  curate  in  charge,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Giles,  the  imme- 
diate predecessor  of  the  present  rector,  who,  when  he  had  to  give  out 
the  hymn  (selected  from  the  collection  at  the  end  of  the  book  of 
Common  Prayer,  which  was  then  in  use)  : — "Let us  sing  to  the  praise 
and  glory  of  God  No.  5,  together  with  the  '  Gloria  patri,' "  persuaded 
the  clerk  to  alter  it  into — "  Let  us  sing  to  the  praise  and  glory  of 
God  No.  5,  together  with  the  glorious  patriarch." 

It  is  also  on  record  that  Cain,  noticing  that  the  performer  on  the 
barrel-organ  had  made  a  mistake  and  was  playing  the  evening  hymn 
instead  of  the  one  given  out,  interrupted  the  music  with  the  reminder, 
'*.  You  be  a-playin'  the  evening  hymn  instead  of  the  mornin'  hymn." 
Perhaps,  after  all,  it  was  the  only  Avay  of  getting  over  the  difficulty, 
and  the  old  sexton  intended  to  be  decorous,  if  it  does  not  appear  so 
in  our  eyes  now,  when  nearly  thirty-five  years  have  passed  away. 
Such  incidents  were  then  not  uncommon  in  this  as  in  other  churches 


in  the  country  ;  nor  is  it  improbable,  as  it  has  been  averred,  that  the  old 
curate-in-charge  at  that  time,  seeing  two  well-known  ladies  enter  the 
church  and  join  the  few  rustics  who  composed  the  congregation,  requested 
his  wife  in  an  audible  voice  to  "  go  and  bring  the  offertory  plate  "  : 
he  had  abandoned  all  hope  of  the  offertory  producing  anything  except 
from  such  attendants.  It  is  not  surprising  that  under  such  circum- 
stances he  should  have  sometimes  paused  in  the  service  and  indicated 
himself  the  pew  into  which  the  better  class  of  worshippers  should  go. 

These  were  the  good  old  days  of  high  pews,  when  the  expression, 
attitude,  and  dress  of  the  worshipper  were  not  open  to  the  idle  gaze 
and  criticism  of  the  more  undevout  and  indifferent  members  of  the 
congregation.  The  pews  were  replaced  by  open  sittings  in  1868,  and 
before  that  time  a  proper  means  had  been  found  for  warming  the 
church  :  until  then  it  had  been  customary  to  send  an  iron  pierced 
vessel  filled  with  lighted  coke  from  the  rectory. 

The  "  roomy  pew  "  which  belonged  to  the  Lateward  family,  "  lined 
and  cushioned  with  faded  and  worm-eaten  scarlet  cloth,"  was  imme- 
diately opposite  the  reading-desk  ;  doubtless  it  had  been  used  by  many 
of  the  territorial  lords  of  Perivale  before  them.  The  old  barrel-organ 
was  placed  on  the  north-west  side  of  the  building  close  to  the  vestry, 
and  in  front  of  it  was  the  seat  of  the  worthy  old  clerk  and  sexton, 
Richard  Cain.  The  church  was  then  supposed  to  contain  a  maximum 
of  sixty  persons. 

"Nothing,"  says  Mr.  Farthing,  in  his  notes  in  1845,  "comes amiss 
to  Cain,  the  old  sexton — farming,  cattle  doctoring,  rick-making,  thatch- 
ing, gardening,  making  rustic  ornaments,  carpentering,  building,  grave- 
digging,  brewing  (and  drinking  the  beer  afterwards),  and  a  hundred 
other  occupations  he  was  equally  clever  at ; "  but  there  is  one  thing 
he  could  not  do,  i.e.,  sing  psalms,  although  he  could,  "  over  a  Christ- 
mas fire,  with  the  yule  log  burning  cheerily,  strike  up  many  a  song 
and  roundelay.  He  would  have  made  a  capital  settler  in  the  back- 
woods, and  in  time  would  doubtless  have  become  rich  ;  but  fate  fixed 
his  abode  at  Perivale  :  here  was  he  born,  and  many  generations  of 
Cains  before  him,  and  here  in  all  probability  he  will  be  buried  when 
old  '  Edax  rerum  '  thinks  proper  to  mow  him  down  with  his  scythe, 
and  then  another  sexton  shall  do  that  for  poor  Richard  which  he,  in 
his  day,  hath  done  for  so  many  who  have  gone  before  him." 


"  There  is  nothing  of  the  sycophant  about  him :  he  looks  you  boldly 
and  steadily  in  the  face  when  he  speaks,  and  there  is  a  sly  twinkle  in 
his  clear  blue  eye  which  clearly  indicates  that  he  considers  himself  as 
good  as  you,  although  not  so  well  off  in  the  world."  He  cracked  his 
little  jokes  with  the  Bishop  when  the  latter  on  one  occasion  visited  the 
church.  Nor  was  the  good  Bishop  at  all  displeased  with  him,  "  for 
there  was  never  the  appearance  of  impertinence,  much  less  incivility, 
about  him,  but  on  the  contrary  he  rewarded  him  with  a  gratuity  which 
made  the  old  man  very  proud,  as  other  parish  clerks  were  not  treated 
in  the  same  manner."  There  is  "  simply  a  downright  honest  John 
Bullism  about  old  Cain  "  ;  and  when,  "after  a  hard  day's  toil,  he  bids 
you  a  cheerful  '  Good  night,'  and  seeks  his  tumbledown  cot,  you  feel 
assured  there  is  one  happy  and  contented  man"  at  any  rate  in  the  world. 

But,  with  all  his  good  qualities,  Cain  could  not  sing  the  Church 
music,  and  as  the  difficulties  created  thereby  were  partly  the  cause 
of  the  introduction  of  the  old  barrel-organ,  it  is  as  well  to  give  an 
account  of  the  way  the  obstacles  arose  and  were  overcome  in  the 
writer's  own  words.  "  I  was  much  shocked  and  scandalised  by  the 
miserable  manner  in  which  the  Psalmody  was  burlesqued ;  without 
taste,  voice,  or  ear,  poor  Cain,  the  clerk,  grunted  forth  the  most  dolorous 
and  unearthly  sounds.  It  was  really  a  penance  to  the  serious  portion 
of  the  congregation,  and  a  matter  of  unseemly  mirth  to  the  more 
thoughtless  when  he  ruthlessly  murdered  the  poetry  of  the  sweet 
Psalmist  of  Israel,  who  had  been  previously  martyred  by  Dr.  Brady 
and  his  laureated  coadjutor. 

'  Tate  and  the  doctor  had  great  qualms 
When  they  translated  David's  psalms. 
But  had  it  been  poor  David's  fate 
To  hear  Cain  sing  and  them  translate, 
I  am  sure  it  would  have  driven  him  mad ' — 

Cain's  cacophony  "  proving  intolerable,"  "  I  at  first  thought  of  pro- 
curing a  similar  instrument  to  the  one  at  the  church  at  Twyford  "  (an 
Eolina),  but  as  there  might  be  difficulty  in  getting  any  one  to  play  it, 
it  was  determined,  if  possible,  "  to  procure  a  barrel-organ,  which  any 
one  could  play  upon."  Ultimately  "  one  was  procured  which  contained 
twenty  psalm  tunes,  and,  with  this  to  help,  we  reopened  the  church 
in  fine  style,"  the  writer  of  the  "  Pictures  of  Perivale "  acting  as 
leader  ;  but,  alas  !  to  his  dismay,  no  one  but  old  Cain  attempted  to 


sing,  and  the  latter  and  the  former  together  made  such  a  discord, 
as,  he  says,  made  him  heartily  wish  Cain,  "  the  instrument,  and  my- 
self anywhere  but  in  Perivale  Church."  Having  ultimately  got  a  little 
choir  together,  things  promised  to  go  well,  but  the  old  clerk  was  not 
to  be  disposed  of  so  easily  ;  for  he  "  was  determined  to  lead,  or,  rather, 
mislead,  and  the  obstinate  fellow,  who  croaked  like  a  frog  in  a  marsh, 
persisted  in  singing,  as  he  called  it."  The  two  or  three  ladies  who 
helped  gave  up  their  self-imposed  task  in  disgust.  There  would  have 
probably  been  a  reversion  to  the  old  style  of  music  but  for  the  inde- 
fatigable exertions  of  Mr.  Farthing,  who  subsequently  added  ten  new 
tunes  to  the  instrument,  prevailing  on  old  Cain  at  the  same  time  "  to 
give  up  his  unconscionable  howling  "  on  his  being  duly  installed  as 
"  organist,"  or  grinder  to  the  barrel-organ. 

The  person  who  had  for  many  years  about  this  period  officiated  at 
the  organ  in  this  manner,  and  whose  services  it  was  considered 
desirable  to  replace  by  those  of  Cain,  in  the  hope  that  he  would  be 
content  therewith,  and  not  again  join  in  the  vocal  music,  was  one 
Thomas  Hope,  a  curious  character.  He  was  an  old  man  and  very 
poor,  but  still  the  owner  of  three  or  four  hovels  he  had  built  just  out- 
side the  parish  on  the  western  side  of  Horsendon  Hill.  They  were 
let  for  the  modest  rent  of  Is.  or  Is.  6d.  a  week  to  people  as  poor  as 
himself.  Hope  was  a  "  good  landlord  "  in  one  sense  :  he  received 
very  little  rent,  and  never  enforced  his  claims,  and  even  ground  the 
organ  gratuitously.  Although  not  a  parishioner,  his  name  is  identified 
with  Perivale  as  one  of  its  institutions  in  the  early  part  of  this  cen- 
tury. The  old  man  was,  in  fact,  the  means  of  communication  to 
some  extent  between  the  hamlet  and  the  outer  world  ;  he  was 
entrusted  with  commissions  to  execute  in  the  adjacent  towns.  Ealing 
beiDg  then  but  a  small  village,  and  the  commodities  required  not 
being  generally  obtainable  there,  he  was  often  dispatched  to  Brent- 
ford to  purchase  such  articles  as  were  needed. 

The  peculiar  feature  in  Hope's  character  was  his  passion  for  stand- 
ing sponsor  to  the  children  born  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Perivale. 
It  is  said  "  he  stood  "  for  more  than  five  hundred  children,  and  was 
present  as  a  spectator  at  twice  that  number  of  baptismal  ceremonies. 
It  is  not  surprising  that  "  his  memory  is  still  green  around  Perivale," 
and  it  is  likely  to  remain  so. 



The  old  man's  attention  was  not,  however,  only  devoted  to  the  occa- 
sions of  responsibility  associated  with  the  entrance  into  this  mysterious 
world  :  he  had  an  equal  enthusiasm  for  attending  funerals.  For  this 
purpose  he  would  walk  many  miles,  and  it  is  said  he  always  stayed 
until  the  graves  were  filled  up  ;  in  fact,  he  rivalled  old  Machyn,  in 
Henry  VIII.'s  reign  (who  left  us  his  diary),  in  his  desire  to  be  present 
on  such  occasions,  with  this  difference  :  the  latter  bestowed  his  atten- 
tion on  the  "  exit "  of  important  people,  whereas  old  Hope  was  pre- 
sent at  the  obsequies  of  the  rich  and  poor  alike,  and  left  no  record. 

As  for  Cain,  the  worthy  old  sexton  and  clerk,  more  fortunate  than 
Hope,  has  he  not  been  immortalized  in  verse  by  the  poet  of  Perivale 
before  mentioned  ?     The  following  stanzas  are  from  the — 


Near  Perivale  :  hard  by  the  worn  high- 
Close  to  the  winding  Brent  his  hovel 
The  roof  and  walls  are  crumbling  to  decay, 
Save  where  repaired   by  his  own    toil- 
worn  hands ; 
Observe  the  crazy  hut,  ye  passers  by  ! 
And  pity  the  poor  man  who    lives   so 
The  various  phases  of  the  moon  he  knows, 
And  whence  her  orb  derives  her  silver 
From  what  strange   cause  the  winding 
Brent  o'erflows, 
By  which  the  meads  so  oft  have  flooded 
Recounts  what  comets  have  appear'd  of 

Portending  want  and  woe  and  miseries 

A  goodly  sight  I  wot  it  is  to  view, 

Cain  as  the  Parish  Clerk  on   Sabbath 
Seated  beneath  the  organ  in  his  pew, 
Or  kneeling  down  with  lifted  hands  to 
As  ever  and  anon,  at  close  of  prayer, 
He  shouteth  out  a — men  with  solemn  air. 

"  Such  times  an  ancient  suit  of  black  he 
Which  from  the  Rector's  wardrobe  did 
descend ; 
Love  to  his  clerk    the  worthy    Parson 
Pities  his  griefs  and  wishes  to  befriend  : 
But  what,  alas,  can  our  incumbent  do, 
Blest  with  a  wife  and  sons  and  daughters 

"  His  youthful  feats  with  honest  pride  he 
In  rural  sports  what  honours  he  had 
How  on  the  green  he  threw  the  wrestler 
How  far  he  leapt ;  and  oh,  how  swift 
he  ran ; 
Then  with   a  sigh  he  fondly  gave   due 

To  rivals  now  no  more  and  friends  of 
former  days  ; 

' '  At  length  concluding  with  reflection  deep : 
Alas  !  of  life  few  comforts  now  remain, 
Of  what  I  was,  I  but  the  shadow  keep, 

Worn  down  by  labour,  penury  and  pain. 
Yet  let  me  not  arraign  just  Heaven's 

The  lot  of  Human -kind,  as  man  belongs 
to  me." 

The  minute-book  of  the  vestry  from  1812  to  1851  was  evidently 
commenced  under  the  direction  of  the  rector,  the  Rev.  James  F.  Late- 
ward,  and,  like  the   register,  begun  with  such  care  by  the  Rev.  R. 


Mills,  the  rector  in  1719,  was  apparently  a  new  departure,  an  attempt 
to  proceed  in  a  legal  and  proper  manner  in  recording  the  events  of 
the  church  and  parish. 

The  first  resolution  of  the  vestry  in  1812  referred  to  the  purchase 
of  a  new  Prayer  Book,  the  one  in  use  "  being  so  torn  as  to  be 
incapable  of  being  repaired  ; "  the  second  was  to  bring  the  Grand 
Junction  Canal  Company,  which  had  "  not  been  regularly  rated  to 
the  parish  rates"  within  the  area  of  assessment,  and  forthwith  to 
levy  rates  upon  it,  and  then  to  resolve  "  that,  as  William  Trustrum, 
junr.,  will  have  performed  the  office  of  Parish  Clerk  for  nine  years  at 
Easter  next,  and  has  received  no  salary  for  such  office,  it  is  ordered 
that  he  be  paid  out  of  the  parish  rates  at  the  rate  of  £2  12s.  6d.  per 
annum  for  the  said  nine  years."  It  is  probable  that  Trustrum  would 
not  have  been  so  patient  in  regard  to  his  increasing  claim  if  "the 
principal  inhabitants"  (an  expression  often  used)  had  met  oftener  in 
vestry  and  proceeded  to  levy  rates.  When  they  did  meet,  however, 
they  acted  vigorously,  and  ordered  that  a  rate  be  made  at  2s.  8d.  in 
the  pound  on  the  Grand  Junction  Canal  Company  from  1810  to  1811, 
and  another  rate  on  the  "  inhabitants  "  for  overseers'  expenses  between 
1811  and  1812  at  Is.  7d.  in  the  pound.  They  purchased  an  iron 
chest  to  contain  the  new  register  books,  and  ordered  "that  the  roof  of 
Perrivale  Church  be  forthwith  repaired  at  the  expense  of  the  parish, 
and  that  Joseph  Hopgood,  pauper,  be  allowed  seven  shillings  a  week 
at  the  expense  of  the  parish."  In  1814  there  is  a  curious  entry — "  that 
Mr.  Westmore,  senior,  having  consented  to  do  and  finish  at  his  own 
expense  the  repairing  and  mending  of  the  road  leading  from  Apperton 
to  Perrivale  in  Marbone  Hills,  the  said  proposal  and  offer  be  accepted 
and  agreed  to  by  Mr.  Barnjum  and  Mr.  Amer." 

In  1817  it  was  resolved  to  allow  Mr.  Barnjum  out  of  the  poor  rate 
made  in  1814,  and  out  of  and  from  "the  two  following  rates  made 
and  assessed  in  1817,  one  pound  each."  What  service  he  rendered 
for  this  munificent  payment  is  not  stated,  but  there  are  reasons  for 
believing  that  he  was  then'  the  representative  of  law  and  order,  and 
had  performed  the  duties  of  parish  constable. 

Emboldened  by  the  satisfaction  which  these  Acts  appear  to  have 
given  to  "  the  inhabitants,"  a  vestry  was  held  in  1817  for  the  purpose 
of  nominating  and  making  a  list  of  substantial  householders,  or  "such 


persons  as  shall  be  resident  in  tins  parish,  for  the  purpose  and  choice 
of  his  Majesty's  Justices  of  the  Peace  for  the  serving  the  office  of 
Surveyor  of  the  High  Ways  of  this  parish  for  the  year  ensuing." 

The  minute  is  signed  by  the  churchwarden,  the  overseer,  and  two 
inhabitants — two  signatures,  the  others  by  their  marks.  There  is  no 
evidence  that  the  "  surveyor  of  highways"  was  then  elected,  though 
that  officer  was  appointed  two  or  three  years  subsequently. 

It  must  not  be  supposed,  however,  that  the  Yestry  of  Perivale  in 
1818  was  without  power  (unless,  indeed,  it  was  illegally  assumed). 
At  a  meeting  held  in  that  year,  at  which  the  two  overseers,  the 
churchwarden,  and  one  "  inhabitant"  were  present,  they  resolved  and 
agreed  "  that  James  Curtis  do  pay  into  the  hands  of  the  church- 
wardens and  overseers  fifteen  pounds  for  and  towards  the  relief  and 
support  of  his  illegitimate  child." 

In  1820  William  Rolph  was  appointed  constable,  at  £2  2s.  per 
annum  ;  and  at  a  subsequent  meeting  a  proposal  from  the  rector 
that  "  Hazard's  salary  (parish  clerk)  was  or  further  should  be 
increased  was  negatived  by  the  undermentioned  meeting."  All  the 
farmers,  which  is  nearly  synonymous  with  the  ratepayers,  number- 
ing five,  attended  this  meeting  with  the  rector.  Hazard  was  then 
being  paid  at  the  rate  of  £2   12s.  6d.  per  annum. 

For  a  considerable  time  one  churchwarden  sufficed,  but  in  1824, 
and  for  some  years  afterwards,  two  were  appointed.  The  overseer  or 
overseers  appear  to  have  been  chosen,  and  rates  levied  for  the  neces- 
sary relief  of  the  poor,  varying  from  Is.  to  3s.  in  the  pound,  and 
a  church  rate  irregularly,  up  to  1832,  when  a  blank  occurs,  and 
there  is  no  recorded  meeting  until  1836,  when  the  churchwarden, 
William  Hierons,  and  two  inhabitants  attended,  and  appointed  a 
churchwarden  and  a  constable. 

In  1826  there  appears  to  have  been  a  serious  dispute  in  Perivale 
about  money  matters.  Barnjum,  one  of  the  principal  inhabitants, 
had  called  in  the  good  offices  of  the  rector,  who,  as  he  says,  "  was 
always  anxious  to  promote  at  all  times  good  will  and  friendship 
among  his  parishioners."  Mr.  Barnjum  "  expressed  his  desire  to 
settle  his  accounts  of  money  with  those  parishioners  of  Perivale  who 
had  claims  on  him,  provided  a  certain  sum  which  was  due  to  him 
was  paid  ;"  but  the  vestry  seems  to  have  had  no  effect,  Mr.  Barnjum 


"  being  altogether  at  variance  with  that  desire  for  reconciliation,  this 
disposition  being  manifested  in  perverse  and  most  unfounded  objec- 
tion to  the  accounts  of  rates,  &c,  delivered  to  him  as  due  by  the 
overseers;"  and  "by  an  evident  determination  on  his  part  to  avoid 
payment  of  the  said  rates."  He  had  also  omitted  to  pay  his  tithe 
when  called  on  to  do  so  by  the  churchwardens.  How  this  serious 
business  was  settled  the  record  sayeth  not,  but  it  is  evident  it  was 
settled  in  some  way.  It  appears  that  at  this  time  "  the  services  of 
Mr.  Hawkins  as  'vestry  clerk'  had  for  a  considerable  time  been  de- 
voted with  great  fidelity  to  the  parish  without  remuneration,  so  the 
sum  of  five  pounds  was  named  by  Mr.  Barnjum,  and  agreed  to  be 
given  to  him  out  of  the  next  poor  rate,"  as  a  gratuity. 

As  in  the  great  world  so  in  the  small  world  of  Perivale,  the  inhabi- 
tants had  their  rise  and  fall  in  fortune.  Mr.  John  Westmore, 
farmer,  who  had  served  the  office  of  overseer  and  churchwarden,  and 
who,  in  other  ways,  appears  to  have  been  "  a  prominent  citizen,"  must 
have  suffered  a  reverse  in  his  career,  as,  in  1831,  a  vestry  is  called 
to  consider  °  what  it  was  competent  to  be  allowed  him ;  it  was 
agreed  that  the  sum  of  8  s.  per  week  was  sufficient  for  the  main- 
tenance of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Westmore ;  and  it  was  also  the  wish  of  the 
said  inhabitants  that  the  daughters  of  Mrs.  Westmore  should  not 
reside  with  them."  What  will  strike  the  ordinary  reader  in  perusing 
these  proceedings,  is  the  independent  action  of  the  Perivale  vestry. 
There  is  no  suggestion  of  any  reference  to  any  central  authority,  such 
as  the  Board  of  Guardians,  up  to  this  date.  Presumedly  that  body 
did  not  exist,  and  the  social  amenities  of  the  Board  at  Brentford  had 
not  come  into  action. 

It  is  evident  from  the  minutes  of  the  vestry  that  the  rector  had 
some  difficulty  in  getting  a  church  rate  voted  for  "  the  repairs  and 
other  expenses  of  the  church."  One  was  passed  of  3d.  in  the 
pound  in  1830,  "to  defray  church  fees  and  expenses,"  as  well  as 
Is.  in  the  pound  in  1830  and  1831,  "for  the  immediate  and  neces- 
sary relief  of  the  poor  and  other  purposes  mentioned  by  the  several 
Acts  ;"  but  though  there  was  the  average  attendance  of  three  or 
four  people  in  the  latter  meetings  when  the  poor  rates  were  voted, 
there  seems  to  have  been  no  enthusiasm  displayed  in  favour  of  the 
church,  to  say  the  least,  when  the  rate  for  defraying  the  church  fees 


and  expenses  were  considered,  as  it  appears,  the  meeting  was  attended 
only  by  a  gentleman  who  united  in  his  own  person  the  offices  of 
churchwarden  and  overseer,  and  by  another  person  who  describes 
himself  as  "  an  inhabitant,"  and  who  subsequently  was  appointed 
"  constable,"  perhaps  for  his  meritorious  attendances  at  the  vestry 
meetings.  A  few  years  later,  and  the  said  churchwarden  and  overseer 
offered  to  fulfil  the  office  of  constable,  and  "as  a  constable  was 
required,"  his  offer  was  agreed  to. 

It  is  evident  from  the  minutes  that  in  1836,  after  the  lapse  of 
four  years,  during  which  no  vestry  meetings  are  recorded,  the  church 
had  been  neglected,  and  that  the  Rural  Dean  had  found  it  necessary 
to  interfere.  In  August  a  meeting  was  held,  "  when,  after  much 
conversation  and  friendly  advice  given  to  his  parishioners  by  the 
incumbent,  in  urging  them  to  comply  with  the  orders  of  the  Rural 
Dean  respecting  the  repairs  and  fittings  of  the  church,  as  settled 
between  the  Rural  Dean  and  the  churchwarden,  it  was  resolved  by 
vote,  in  addition  to  the  said  repairs  and  fittings  ordered  at  the  last 
meeting,"  held  three  weeks  earlier — "  That  the  tower  of  the  church, 
which  had  been  painted  once  over,  should  be  painted  once  apain,  the 
rector  not  having  been  able  to  carry  into  effect  the  order  of  the 
Rural  Dean  that  the  whole  of  it  should  be  painted  three  times,  and 
even  a  minority  of  the  vestry  having  dissented  to  its  being  re- 
painted." The  other  resolutions  refer  to  other  reparations  ;  but 
they  are  modified  in  an  economical  sense,  and  not  in  accordance 
with  the  orders  of  the  Dean.  Among  the  resolutions  there  is  one 
"  that  a  new  surplice  be  ordered,  that  the  old  Prayer  Book  be  re- 
paired for  the  clerk,  and  that,  instead  of  a  new  Bible  and  Prayer 
Book  for  the  reading-desk,  the  churchwarden  be  directed  to  procure 
a  second-hand  Bible  and  Prayer  Book  (if  he  should  be  able  to  do  so) 
suitable  for  the  purpose." 

The  sixth  resolution  put  at  this  meeting  is  a  remarkable  one  : 
"  That  a  font  with  a  lid  for  christenings  be  not  ordered,  on  the  score 
that,  in  point  of  fact,  there  are  no  christenings  for  'parishioners  of 
Perivale,  nor  likely  to  be  any.  On  this  consideration  the  rector  [as 
he  writes  pathetically]  was  unable  to  procure  the  assent  of  any  one 
of  his  parishioners  to  the  order  for  the  font." 

The  old  font  which  is  now  in  the  church,  and  which  bears  on  the 



cover  the  inscription,  "  The  Gift  of  Simon  Coston,  Gent,  1665,"  was 
subsequently  found  hidden  away  among  rubbish  which  had  accumu- 
lated. In  1861  there  was  such  a  collection,  filling  the  little  vestry 
under  the  tower.  It  is  evident  that  at  this  time  there  was  no 
proper  font  in  use  in  the  church. 

The  8d.  in  the  pound  for  church  repairs  then  levied  appears  to  have 
been  calculated  to  produce  £24  10s.,  arising  from  a  gross  rental  of 
£755.  This  was  not  obtained  without  great  difficulty,  as  the  farmer 
(Mr.  Hierons)  assessed  at  the  highest  amount  (£200  per  annum) 
repeatedly  refused  to  bear  his  portion  of  the  rate,  and  left  the  vestry 
(held  in  December,  1836).  Under  these  circumstances  the  rector 
found  it  impracticable  to  give  effect  to  the  assent  of  the  parishioners 
for  a  Prayer  Book  for  the  clerk,  new  surplice,  &c.  "  It  was,  however, 
determined  that  the  churchwarden  should  give  immediate  orders  for 
the  repair  of  the  tower,  shattered  by  the  late  winds,"  and  the  order 
for  the  collection  of  the  rate  was  confirmed. 

In  March,  1837,  the  largest  ratepayer  referred  to  still  persisting  in 
his  determination  not  to  pay  the  £6  13s.  4d.  due  from  him,  a  con- 
siderable deficit  arose,  and  the  churchwarden  was  threatened  with 
legal  proceedings  to  enforce  the  payment  of  certain  bills  ;  but  at  the 
vestry,  called  in  consequence,  only  the  rector,  the  churchwarden, 
and  John  Hobbs,  "an  inhabitant  rated  at  £10,"  attended.  At  this 
meeting,  on  the  proposal  of  the  rector,  seconded  by  the  aforesaid 
Hobbs,  Mr.  Smith  was  appointed  "  churchwarden  of  the  parish, 
overseer,  and  guardian  of  the  poor  for  the  year  ensuing." 

In  1839,  when  another  church  rate  of  5d.  in  the  pound  was 
made,  to  cover  the  deficit  which  still  continued,  and  other  expenses, 
the  rental  of  the  lands  in  Perivale  had  increased  collectively  to 
£1,136  10s.;  and  in  1849  to  £1,152.  The  disbursements  from  the 
church  rate  are  henceforth  carefully  set  forth,  and  a  rate  of  two  or 
threepence  annually  seems  generally  to  have  sufficed.  The  minute- 
book,  and,  in  fact,  the  whole  management  of  the  church,  &c,  bears 
distinct  evidence  of  great  improvement  since  Mr.  John  Farthing 
became  churchwarden  in  1846. 


"  A  lonely  stream  that  sobs  along, 
Like  a  child  that  has  lost  his  way, 
Making  its  moan  in  the  heartless  hills 
That  imprison  it  night  and  day." 

The  river  Brent,  which  forms  such  a  picturesque  feature  in  the 
country  around  Peri  vale,  is  the  result  of  streams  rising  in  the  districts 
of  Hendon,  Finchley,  and  Hampstead.  After  passing  through  Kings- 
bury, where,  by  artificial  means,  it  has  been  converted  into  a  lake  or 
reservoir,  and  past  Willesden  and  Twyford  to  Perivale,  it  turns  south 
and  enters  the  Thames  at  Brentford. 

The  subsoil  of  the  whole  of  this  part  of  Middlesex  is  London  clay, 
except  the  tops  of  the  higher  hills,  where,  as  on  Harrow  Hill,  a  capping 
of  Bagshot  sand  and  gravel  occurs,  as  part  of  the  continuous  Tertiary 
strata  beneath,  and  a  remnant  of  the  vast  thickness  of  the  same  beds 
which  in  Tertiary  times  covered  the  whole  of  Middlesex,  long  before 
there  was  even  a  beginning  to  the  present  sculpture  of  the  surface  into 
hill  and  dale.  On  the  lesser  hills,  rising  from  150  to  over  200  feet, 
Avhich  border  the  valley,  another  formation  occurs  —it  is  of  Quatern- 
ary Age,  which  succeeded  the  Tertiary,  and  on  the  summits,  as  well  as 
clothing  some  of  the  higher  slopes  of  "the  Mount,"  Hanger  Hill,  &c, 
are  deposits,  the  relics  of  that  period  of  great  cold  when  much  of  the 
British  Isles  was  covered  deep  in  ice  or  frozen  snow  called  neve,  the 
result  in  great  part  of  the  vast  outpouring  of  the  glaciers,  which,  ema- 
nating from  the  mountains  of  Scotland,  Cumberland,  and  Wales  in 
confluent  flow,  overspread  the  land. 

They  are  of  the  highest  interest  to  the  geologist,  since  the  incom- 
ing of  man  into  this  country  is  associated  with  this  epoch,  which  has 
been  fitly  called  the  Glacial  Period. 

Upon  the  summit  of  '*  the  Mount,"  which,  with  Hanger  Hill,  &c, 
forms  a  ridge  dividing  the  Brent  Valley  from  that  of  the  Thames,  there 
was  found,  when  the  reservoirs  there  were  made,  deposits  which  appear 
to  have  been  formed  in  a  lake  at  that  hisdi  level  before  the  Brent 
Valley  had  been  eroded.      The  silty  laminated  beds  of  the  lacustrine 

k  2 


deposits  contained  deep  furrows  filled  with  gravel  and  clayey  matter. 
Under  these  furrows  the  stratified  beds  were  twisted  and  contorted, 
as  if  from  the  pressure  of  masses  of  ice  which  in  melting  deposited 
the  stones.  Some  very  large  masses  of  sarsen  stone  or  greywether, 
one  of  which  has  been  preserved  there,  were  found  in  the  excavations, 
while  all  over  the  surface  of  the  land  small  boulders  of  rock  were  dis- 
covered, which  had  been  transported  by  ice  from  the  north  of  England, 
Wales,  and  even  probably  from  Scotland,  all  pointing  to  the  severe 
•climatic  conditions  which  prevailed  ere  the  present  valleys  were  formed. 
Similar  deposits  occur  at  Finchley  and  other  places  north  of  Pf  rivale, 
and  such  lakes  are  often  formed  in  the  morainic  matter  or  bounded 
by  the  ice  itself,  as  the  neve,  or  icecap,  recedes  in  countries  where  an 
arctic  climate  now  prevails. 

The  gravel  which  the  Brent  deposits  along  its  course  is  composed 
of  much-rolled  and  other  pebbles,  derived  from  the  hills  to  the  north 
of  the  county,  and  they  are  found  at  all  levels  up  to  fifty  feet  in  the 
valley  ;  they  mark  the  depth  to  which  the  valley  had  been  eroded  at 
different  times  in  the  past.  There  is  also  evidence  all  along  the  valley 
of  the  river  having  changed  its  channel  many  times  in  the  course  of 
its  history,  for  our  little  river  behaves  exactly  as  great  rivers  are  found 
to  do  when  they  flow  through  a  flat  valley.  In  time  of  flood  it  has 
often  made  short  cuts  across  instead  of  following  its  old  bends  and 
curves,  besides  continually  cutting  back  its  old  banks  in  some  places. 
The  ancient  channels  are  nowT  often  marked  by  old  pollard  oaks,  some 
of  wrhich  date  back  to  the  time  when  the  poor  were  allowed  to  cut 
them  for  fuel  when  coal  was  very  scarce,  while  an  absence  of  trees  on 
the  margin  in  other  places  where  the  river  now  flows,  shows  the  course 
of  its  later  vagaries.  Such  is  a  brief  outline  of  the  geology  and 
physiography  of  the  Brent  Valley. 

A  few  words  about  the  humbler  denizens  and  temporary  sojourners 
in  Peri  vale  and  the  Brent  Valley  and  our  story  is  told.  What  history 
of  a  rural  hamlet  is  complete  which  does  not  tell  us  something  about 
the  birds  which  frequent  it  ? 

Have  they  not  their  favourite  home  on  the  banks  of  our  pretty 
Brent  ?  their  haunts  among  the  trees,  hedgerows,  and  meadows  about 
Perivale  ?  Let  the  jaded  and  anxious  City  man  accompany  a  friend  who 
is  familiar  with  the  notes,  habits,  and  haunts  of  birds  in  a  few 
rambles  in  that  secluded    country  in  spring  and  summer,  and  the 


revelation  of  a  new  world  will  be  made  to  him.  He  will  find,  as  White 
of  Selborne  says,  "  that  the  winged  tribes  have  various  sounds  and 
voices  adapted  to  express  their  various  passions,  wants,  and  feelings, 
such  as  anger,  fear,  love,  hatred,  hunger,  and  the  like.  All  species 
are  not  equally  eloquent ;  some  are  copious  and  fluent,  as  it  were,  in 
their  utterances,  while  others  are  confined  to  a  few  important  sounds. 
No  bird,  like  fish-kind,  is  quite  mute,  though  some  are  rather  silent." 
It  requires  a  keen  eye,  a  quick  ear,  and  a  habit  of  observation  to 
really  obtain  an  insight  into  the  bird  world,  but,  like  every  other  part 
of  Nature's  stupendous  whole,  wherein  a  connection  and  continuity 
exists  between  the  infinitely  great  and  the  infinitely  small,  the  subject 
is  of  the  highest  interest. 

"Our  River"  is  the  favourite  home  of  the  yellow-and-pied  wagtail, 
and  the  grey  or  winter  wagtail  may  occasionally  be  seen  there  too  ; 
so  also  the  sedge-warbler. 

The  gem-like  kingfisher,  who  makes  amends  for  his  lack  of  song 
by  his  brilliant  plumage,  may  sometimes  be  observed  to  dart  across 
its  rippling  waters,  perhaps  guided  by  hereditary  instinct  to  visit  the 
resort  of  its  ancestors,  when  fish  were  more  abundant  in  the  Brent 
than  they  now  are.  As  to  fish,  it  must  be  admitted  that  there  is  not 
much  to  tempt  the  angler  there  at  present.  Still  perch,  roach,  and 
chub  are  not  altogether  absent  from  it,  nor  the  pike  either  :  all  have 
been  caught  here  within  recent  years.  There  is  even  a  tradition  that 
within  the  last  fifty  summers  a  trout  has  been  seen  in  the  little  river. 

At  any  rate  the  followers  of  old  Isaac  Walton  may  still  be  found 
on  the  banks,  credulous  and  hopeful  to  the  last  ! 

Among  the  migratory  birds  the  high-wheeling  swifts  and  the  lower- 
flying  swallows  can  be  found  hovering  over  the  water  in  search  of  the 
beautiful  dragon-flies  and  other  insects  which  abound  there. 

The  hard- billed  seed- feeding  black-headed  bunting  breeds  on  its 
banks,  and  its  close  relative,  the  yellowhammer,  plaintively  makes 
its  demand  seemingly  for  "  a  little  piece  of  bread  and  no  cheese,"  with 
that  delightful  cadence  at  the  end  which  caused  us  as  schoolboys 
to  give  this  interpretation  to  its  song.  The  common  bunting,  the 
largest  of  its  kind,  is  often  seen.  The  linnet,  with  its  beautiful  rose 
tints,  which  are  not  given  to  it  all  at  once,  but  require  at  least  two 
years  to  come  to  perfection,  may  be  occasionally  heard,  while  black- 
birds and  thrushes  are  common  and  add  to  the  melody  which,  in  due 


season,  pervades  the  air.  The  lovely  goldfinch,  too,  though  now  be- 
coming rare,  is  heard,  and  also  the  bullfinch,  decked  in  brilliant 
colours  of  red,  lavender,  and  black,  accompanied  by  his  sober  mate 
dressed  in  black  and  brown  tints,  are  amongst  the  songsters  which 
frequent  the  vale.  But  the  chaffinch  is  at  present  the  special  prize 
of  the  Whitechapel  birdcatcher,  who  unhappily  may  be  seen  on 
almost  any  day  in  spring  and  summer  (more  especially  on  Sunday) 
with  his  covered  cage  and  lure  birds — their  eyes  sometimes  burnt  out, 
poor  wretches — a  sight  which  causes  a  shudder  to  anyone  who  is  not 
destitute  of  feeling. 

The  migratory  pipits  or  pipit  larks,  both  the  tree  and  meadow 
species,  are  more  or  less  common  ;  the  former  arrives  and  commences 
his  pretty  song  about  the  end  of  April ;  the  rock  pipit  has  been 
caught  at  Harrow.  The  whin  chat  and  stone  chat  are  abundant. 
The  reed-warbler  breeds  at  Perivale,  and  the  sedge-warbler,  as  already 
mentioned,  may  occasionally  be  observed  near  the  Brent  ;  a  nest  of 
the  grasshopper  warbler  has  been  recorded  as  found  at  Harrow, 
though  some  years  ago. 

The  greater  and  lesser  white-throats  are  abundant,  and  the  garden 
warblers  moderately  so,  in  the  neighbourhood.  A  common  summer 
visitor  is  the  willow  wren>  and  the  golden-crested  wren.  The  latter, 
the  smallest  of  our  English  birds,  whose  note  is  as  minute  as  its  body, 
is  not  unfrequently  met  with,  as  he  is  a  hardy  little  bird  and  braves 
our  severest  winter.  The  bottle-shaped  nest  of  the  long-tailed  tit 
has  been  found  in  the  Brent  Valley,  and  the  grey,  blue,  and  coal  tits 
are  frequently  seen. 

The  nightjar  is  said  to  be  not  uncommon  between  Perivale  and 
Harrow,  and  the  plover  or  peewit,  sometimes  called  the  lapwing,  has 
been  observed  on  Greenford  Marsh,  as  usual  feigning  to  be  wounded 
when  near  its  nest  to  distract  attention  from  its  home  ;  while  in 
winter  its  congener,  the  golden  plover,  driven  by  the  snow  from  its 
usual  haunts,  has  found  a  temporary  abode  in  the  Brent  valley. 
Common  as  he  is,  the  robin  should  not  be  forgotten,  for  he  is  faithful 
and  abides  with  us  all  the  year  round,  and  finds  some  old  outbuilding 
in  which  to  make  himself  a  home — 

"  And  when  rude  winter  comes  and  shows 
His  icicles  and  shivering  snows, 
Hop  o'er  my  cheerful  hearth  and  be 
One  of  my  peaceful  family." 


The  nutthatch  has  been  seen,  so  too  the  redstart,  and  it  is  pleasant 
to  hear  in  the  vale  the  melodious  warble  of  the  blackcap.  The  most 
mute  and  the  latest  of  our  summer  visitors,  the  flycatcher,  may  be 
observed  darting  from  some  branch  upon  its  prey — catching  the  fly 
in  the  air,  and  then  returning  to  its  post  of  observation  to  await  the 
approach  of  another  victim.  The  teal  has  been  noticed  at  Apperton, 
in  the  Brent  Valley,  as  well  as  at  Harrow  ;  and  large  flocks  of  star- 
lings may  be  often  seen  feeding  in  the  meadows,  not  too  greedy  and 
perhaps  too  politic  to  attempt  to  interfere  with  the  rooks  and  jack- 
daws who  share  their  repast,  thus  preserving  the  grass  from  the 
injury  which  would  follow  the  too  great  abundance  of  insect  life. 

The  lark  is  always  singing  in  the  valley. 

"  Higher  still  and  higher 

From  the  earth  thou  springest 
Like  a  cloud  of  fire  ; 

The  blue  deep  thou  wingest 
And  singing  still  does  soar,  and  soaring  ever  singest." 

The  green  woodpecker,  or  yaffle,  as  it  is  commonly  called,  may 
startle  the  pedestrian  with  its  loud  laugh  ;  and  the  cuckoo,  "  herald 
of  springtime,"  preceded  by  the  wryneck,  •  lingers  through  all  the 
changes  in  his  cry  in  the  Valley  :  that  ungrateful  bird  of  whom  the 
Fool  in  "Lear"  bitterly  saj^s: —  • 

' '  The  hedgesparrow  fed  the  cuckoo  so  long, 
That  it  had  its  head  bit  off  by  its  young." 

The  heron  may  be  sometimes  seen,  with  languid  flight,  compelled 
like  the  kingfisher  to  visit  its  old  fishing  haunts.  The  kestrel 
appears  at  times  hovering  in  the  air,  seemingly  almost  without 
motion.  As  for  the  other  hawks,  the  sparrow-hawk  is  rare,  and  a 
merlin  was  shot  near  the  Stone  Bridge  on  the  Greenford  Road 
in  1861. 

In  the  evening,  and  all  night  long  in  early  summer,  the  landrail's 
harsh  note  may  be  heard  amidst  the  long  grass,  now  sounding  so 
near  and  then  so  far  ;  and  a  spotted  crake  was  shot  near  Perivale 
some  years  since.  Fair  Philomel  has  not  forsaken  the  vale  yet,  and 
still  softens  the  heart  with  her  tender,  mellow  notes. 

' '  Sweet  bird,  that  shunnest  the  noise  of  folly — 
Most  musical,  most  melancholy  " — 

as  Milton  wrote  in  "II  Penseroso,"  a  poem  perhaps  composed  when 


he  lived  not  very  far  away  in  a  village  in  the  adjoining  county  (Chal- 
font).  The  snipe  has  been  shot  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  the  wood- 
cock has  fallen  in  recent  years  to  the  gun  of  the  sportsman  ;  so  also 
the  moorhen  with  its  dusky  brood. 

The  barn  owl  may  occasionally  be  noticed  in  noiseless  flight  over 
the  meadows,  and  the  tawny  owl  heard  hooting  from  some  old  tree. 
Scott  says  : — 

"  The  lark  is  but  a  bumpkin  fowl, 
i        He  sleeps  in  his  nest  till  morn, 
But  my  blessing  upon  the  Jolly  Owl, 
That  all  night  blows  his  horn." 

The  ornithologist  may  once  in  a  way  come  across  the  larder  of  the 
shrike  or  butcher-bird,  containing  his  impaled  victims,  and  the  bittern 
has  been  known  to  startle  the  Cockney  sportsman  with  its  great  size 
amidst  the  smaller  game  of  which  he  is  in  search. 

The  snipe  (the  jack  snipe,  it  is  said),  as  well  as  the  larger  species, 
makes  its  appearance  every  year  from  October  to  March,  and  is  occa- 
sionally shot  by  the  farmers.  Stuffed  specimens  of  the  former  are 
preserved  at  Manor  Farm.  The  low  bleat  of  the  partridge  was 
unexpectedly  heard  lately,  but  at  the  early  part  of  this  century  there 
was  a  considerable  amount  of  game  in  Perivale,  and  a  gamekeeper 
was  in  the  service  of  the  Lord  of  the  Manor  to  look  after  it. 

There  are  delightful  little  nooks  along  the  Brent  in  the  vicinity  of 
Perivale — places  where  the  white  scented  water-lily  grows  luxuriously 
and  the  banks  are  decked  with  "  long  purples  "  (Losestrife)  and  a  pro- 
fusion of  other  wild  flowers,  secluded  amongst  the  scented  hawthorns, 
blackthorns,  wild  roses,  and  other  low-growing  trees,  with  bryony 
intertwined  ;  here  and  there  the  gnarled  trunk  of  a  venerable  pollard 
oak  is  in  the  view  as  the  stream  flows  against  its  root  or  a  larger  tree 
has  fallen  from  the  same  cause  across  it.  In  many  parts  an  artist  may 
find  "  bits  "  which  it  wrould  be  difficult  to  match  for  quiet  beauty ; 
hours  may  be  passed  there  in  summer  time — if  the  riflemen  are  not 
practising  at  the  butts  and  destroying  the  harmony  and  repose  of  the 
scene — listening  to  the  low  hum  of  Nature  purring  over  her  endless 
work  of  transmutation,  when  the  silence  is  only  broken  by  the  lowing 
of  the  kine  and  the  confused  melody  of  birds  and  the  buzz  of  insects 
combined  with  the- gentle  ripple  of  the  river,  or  suddenly  by  the  low 
splash  of  the  so-called  wTater  rat,  which  is,  however,  not  a  rat  at  all, 
but  the  water-vole,  a  little  creature  allied  to  the  beaver  family. 


The  meadows,  particularly  those  north  of  the  canal,  are  generally- 
rich  in  cowslips,  but  primroses  are  getting  scarce,  while  the  little 
adder' s-tongue  fern,  which  formerly  was  found  near  the  hamlet  of 
Peri  vale,  has  fallen  a  prey  to  the  itinerant  fern- vendor  and  has  become 
extinct  in  recent  years. 

The  woods  on  the  canal  and  on  Horsendon  Hill — diminished  as  the 
latter  has  been  during  the  past  ten  years,  until  but  a  poor  remnant  of 
them  is  left — still  remind  us  of  the  spring  as  the  season  comes  round 
by  the  tender  blue  wild  hyacinths  and  the  anemones,  or  "wind 
flowers,"  which  grow  there  and  in  other  places. 

There  are  in  the  valley  many  plants  which  are  not  common  near 
London,  including  the  sweet-scented  rush,  with  which  our  less  luxu- 
rious forefathers  did  not  disdain  to  cover  their  floors  in  lieu  of  carpets 
and  often  slept  upon.  A  manuscript  in  the  British  Museum  enu- 
merates certain  festival  days  on  which  the  choir  of  a  church  Avas 
strewn  with  rushes,  hay,  sand,  and  ivy  leaves.  It  was  also  formerly 
the  practice  to  celebrate  the  consecration  of  a  church  or  the  anniver- 
sary of  the  saint  to  whom  it  was  dedicated  by  carrying  garlands  of 
rushes  and  flowers  in  procession  to  the  church  door.*  The  little 
church  at  Perivale,  whose  dedicatory  saint  is  unknown  now,  was 
probably  the  scene  of  many  occurrences  of  the  same  custom. 

Shakespeare  says  : — 

"  Upon  the  wanton  rushes  lay  you  down." 

The  custom  of  annually  strewing  rushes  in  churches  was  in  vogue 
as  late  as  1827  at  Grasmere,  Westmoreland.  Hone  gives  an 
interesting  description  of  it  as  related  by  a  tourist,  and  says  Words- 
worth took  great  interest  in  the  ceremony,  f 

The  rush-bearing  procession  took  place  in  the  evening,  the  children 
having  been  occupied  some  time  before  in  gathering  them  and  in 
preparing  garlands  of  wild  flowers.  "  The  procession  over,  the  partv 
adjourned  to  the  ballroom — a  hayloft — where  the  country  lads  and 
lasses  tripped  it  merrily  and  heavily,  he  who  could  make  the  most 
noise  being  considered  the  best  dancer." 

The  scented  rush  is  found  abundantly  on  the  banks  of  the  canal, 
with  its  neighbour,  the  flowering  rush — high  above  the  forget-me-nots, 
"skull  cap,"  and  other  luxuriant  growing  plants,  the  white  masses  of 

*  Britton's  "Dictionary  of  Architecture  and  Archaeology  of  the  Middle  Ages." 
t  "  Table  Book,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  678. 


the  "  water  bedstraw  "  being  often  conspicuous.  The  pretty  "  arrow- 
head "  grows  well  on  the  banks  of  the  Brent,  and  so  also  does  the 
common  water-lily.  The  "  weasel- snout  "  is  found  more  rarely, 
but  the  "dog  mercury,"  not  met  with  in  many  places  so  near  London, 
may  be  gathered  here,  and  so  too  the  yellow  nettle,  though  it  is  fast 

In  springtime  the  fields  are  decked  with  the  cuckoo-flower,  the 
lady-smocks,  which  Shakespeare  has  immortalised  in  the  lines  : — 

"  When  daisies  pied,  and  violets  blue, 
And  lady- smocks  all  silver  white, 
And  cuckoo -buds  of  yellow  hue, 

Do  paint  the  meadows  with  delight." 

This   chapter  is  best  concluded  with  the  beautiful  picture  of  a 
sunset  at  Perivale,  extracted  from  Mr.  Farthing's  MSS.  : — 

"  Observe  the  flowers  are  silently  folding  up  their  leaves  ;  and  the  bees,  laden  with  the 
luscious  spoils  of  many  a  far-off  meadow,  are  wending  homewards  with  a  drowsy  hum. 
Above  the  tall  old  elms  wheel  flights  of  dusky  rooks— the  feathered  clergy  of  our  childhood's 
fancy.  Masses  of  shadow  sleep  upon  the  sward  beneath,  checkered  at  intervals  with 
patches  of  green  and  yellow  light — Nature's  rich  fresco,  over  which  the  sheep  roam  to  and 
fro  with  almost  noiseless  footfalls.  Daylight  is  wavering,  and  a  pale  thin  haze  creeps 
stealthily  along  the  vale,  covering  the  little  river  with  a  delicate  filmy  curtain ;  but  a 
glowing  light  is  still  poured  out  upon  the  uplands  towards  the  east  and  on  the  iron  cross  of 
the  church's  tower. 

"  Now  look  to  the  west !  See  how  gloriously  the  sun  goes  down,  with  all  his  magnificent 
retinue  of  gorgeous  clouds — purple  and  gold,  ruby  and  amethyst,  turquoise  and  pearl ! 
The  dark  dank  veins  of  Mother  Earth  can  veil  no  colours  half  so  radiant  as  those  the  face  of 
heaven  puts  on  at  sunrise  and  sunset ;  and  now  the  Day-god  dips  lower  and  lower  ;  then, 
hovering  like  a  glory  above  the  crest  of  one  dark  tree,  lingers,  and  sinking  disappears. 

"How  deep  is  now  the  solemn,  intense  and  unbroken  silence  !  The  breeze  has  sunk, 
not  a  leaf  stirs,  not  a  songbird's  note  comes  floating  through  the  air !  There  is  a  suspen- 
sion, as  it  were,  of  Nature's  pulse,  as  though  the  loss  of  fight  had  awed  each  woodland 
warbler  and  made  even  inanimate  things  acknowledge  its  solemnizing  power  ! 

"  But  hark  !  listen  to  that  low  prelusive  song  from  yonder  thicket.  It  grows  and 
strengthens  until  it  mounts  and  swells  into  a  full  rich  liquid  strain,  sinking  and  soaring 
and  quivering  until  the  air  is  literally  impregnated  with  melody,  bird  answering  bird, 
nightingale  uttering  sweet  music  to  nightingale,  a  perfect  choral  evening  hymn  of  praise 
when  the  day  is  departing  and  the  earth  is  still !  But  even  now,  just  where  the  sun  went  down, 
the  sky  still  wears  some  reliquary  glory,  some  traces  of  its  yet  scarcely  departed  grandeur. 
There  are  gleams  of  vivid,  silent,  innocuous  fightning,  and  sudden  openings  in  the  rifted 
clouds,  which  one  might  well  believe  to  be  glimpses  of  the  heaven  beyond,  caught  moment- 
arily while  its  refulgent  gates  unclosed  to  welcome  in  some  wandering  angel  or  bright 
intelligence.  This,  too,  departs,  and  one  by  one,  trembling  and  glittering,  the  sparkling 
stars  appear.  The  hills  deepen  in  their  colour  ;  the  misty  haze  expands  and  thickens  as  it 
spreads.  Objects  remote  mingle  and  blend  confusedly  and  the  sky  grows  pale.  The  eye 
can  scarcely  distinguish  between  the  solid  hills  of  earth  and  those  other  piled-up  heights 
whose  broken  summits  vary  in  form  with  every  varying  current  of  the  atmosphere.  Lights 
twinkle  in  the  windows  of  yonder  house,  and  night,  with  its  solemn  silence  and  its  shadows, 
settles  down  upon  the  darkened  world." 


"  My  childhood  scarce  had  glided  into  youth 
When  my  soul  felt  its  secret  depths,  and  drew 
The  forms  of  fancy  into  light  and  truth." 

Lord  Lytton  ("  The  Tale  of  a  Dreamer  "). 

The  attraction  which  the  winding  Brent  had  for  Lord  Lytton,  and  the 
allusions  made  to  it  in  some  of  the  most  touching  episodes  in  his  works, 
were  explained  when  the  "  Life,  Letters,  and  Literary  Remains  "  of  the 
great  novelist,  edited  by  his  son,  the  present  Lord  Lytton,  appeared  in 
1883.  The  cause  of  these  references  is  there  found  in  autobiogra- 
phical notes  found  among  his  papers,  revealing,  though  only  in  frag- 
ments, a  "  brief  tale  of  true  passion  and  great  sorrow,"  the  effect  of 
which  seems  not  only  to  have  influenced  his  life  but  to  be  reflected 
in  his  writings. 

After  leaving  Dr.  Hooker's  school  at  Rottingdean,  Lord  Lytton, 
then  Lytton  Bulwer,  was  placed  in  1819,  when  he  was  sixteen  years 
of  age,  in  the  small  but  very  select  school  at  Ealing  kept  by  the 
Rev.  Charles  Wallington.  The  house  "  was  a  large,  ancient,  time- 
worn  edifice,  in  which  the  lord  of  the  manor,  or  other  great  man 
of  the  parish,  might  be  supposed  to  have  lived  in  the  reign  of  William 
and  Mary  or  Queen  Anne." 

The  autobiographical  record  of  1820  says  : — "  The  country  around 
the  village  in  which  my  good  preceptor  resided  was  rural  enough  for 
a  place  so  near  the  metropolis.  A  walk  of  somewhat  less  than  a 
mile,  through  lanes  that  were  themselves  retired  and  lonely,  led  to 
green  sequestered  meadows,  through  which  the  humble  Brent  crept 
along  its  snake-like  way.  O  God,  how  palpably,  even  in  hours  the 
least  friendly  to  remembrance,  there  rises  before  my  eyes,  when  I 
close  them,  that  singular  dwarfed  tree  which  overshadowed  the  little 
stream,  throwing  its  boughs  half-way  to  the  opposite  margin  !  I 
wonder  if  it  still  survives.     I  dare  not  revisit  that  spot.     And  there 


Ave  were  wont  to  meet  (poor  children  that  we  were  !)  thinking  not  of 
the  world  we  had  scarcely  entered  ;  dreaming  not  of  fate  and  chance  ; 
reasoning  not  on  what  was  to  come ;  full  only  of  our  first-born,  our 
ineffable,  love.  Along  the  quiet  road  between  Ealing  and  Castlebar, 
the  lodge  gates  stood  (perhaps  they  are  still  standing)  which  led  to 
the  grounds  of  a  villa  once  occupied  by  the  Duke  of  Kent.  To  the 
right  of  those  gates,  as  you  approached  them  from  the  Common,  was 
a  path.  Through  two  or  three  fields  as  undisturbed  and  lonely  as  if 
they  lay  in  the  heart  of  some  solitary  land  far  from  any  human 
neighbourhood,  this  path  conducted  to  the  banks  of  the  little  rivulet, 
overshadowed  here  and  there  by  blossoming  shrubs  and  crooked 
pollards  of  fantastic  shape.  Along  that  path  once  sped  the  happiest 
steps  that  ever  bore  a  boy's  heart  to  the  object  of  its  first  innocent 

"  She  was  one  or  two  years  older  than  I.  She  had  the  sweetest 
face,  the  gentlest  temper  ever  given  to  girlhood.  The  sort  of  love 
we  felt  for  each  other  I  cannot  describe.  It  was  so  unlike  the  love 
of  grown-up  people  ;  so  pure  that  not  one  wrong  thought  ever  crossed 
it,  and  yet  so  passionate  that  never  again  have  I  felt,  nor  ever  again 
can  I  feel,  any  emotion  comparable  to  the  intensity  of  its  tumultuous 

"  It  was  then  summer.  She  did  not  live  in  the  immediate  neigh- 
bourhood of  those  pleasant  fields  which  were  our  place  of  daily 
meeting ;  but  though  she  was  wrell  born,  very  peculiar  circumstances 
had  created  for  her  a  liberty  almost  equal  to  my  own.  We  were  too 
much  children,  both  of  us,  to  talk  in  set  phrase  of  marriage ;  but  we 
believed,  with  our  whole  hearts  and  souls,  that  we  wrere  born  for  each 
other,  and  that  nothing  could  ever  separate  us.  And  so  wre  had  no 
care  for  the  future.  That  was  the  warmest  and  the  brightest  summer 
I  ever  knew  in  this  country ;  I  can  remember  nothing  like  it.  The 
sky  smiled  and  glowed  on  us  as  if  it  also  were  full  of  love.  At  the 
Duke's  lodge  the  gardener  used  to  sell  fruit,  so  there,  as  I  passed  it, 
I  made  my  purchases  for  our  little  feasts,  and  as  I  was  always  first 
upon  the  spot  I  spread  them  out  on  the  grass,  where  the  stream  grew 
darker,  under  the  boughs  of  that  old  dwarf  tree.  When  I  saw  her 
at  a  distance,  my  heart  beat  so  violently  that  I  could  not  breathe 
without  a  painful  effort ;  but  the  moment  I  heard  her  voice  I  was 
calm.     That  voice  produced,  throughout  my  whole  frame,  a  strange 


sensation  of  delicious  repose  ;  the  whole  universe  seemed  hushed  by 
it  into  a  holy  stillness.  Comparing  what  I  felt  then  with  all  I  have 
felt  since,  I  cannot  say  it  was  real  love.  Perhaps  not.  I  think  it  was 
something  infinitely  happier  and  less  earthly.  Till  that  time  my 
spirits  had  been  high  and  my  constitutional  gaiety  almost  turbulent, 
but  when  I  sat  beside  her,  or  looked  into  her  soft  melancholy  face,  or 
when  I  thought  of  it  in  absence,  the  tears  stood  in  my  eyes,  I  knew  not 
why.  I  am  not  sure  that  she  was  what  others  would  call  handsome. 
Often  now  I  see  faces  that  seem  to  me  beautiful,  and  people  smile  at 
me  when  I  say  so.  But  looking  close  into  my  impression  of  them,  I 
perceive  it  was  a  trait,  a  look,  an  air  like  hers  that  charmed  me  with 
them,  and  my  only  notion  of  beauty  is  something  that  resembles  her. 
No  one  ever  suspected  our  meetings,  nor  even,  I  believe,  our  acquaint- 
anceship. I  had  no  confidant  in  either  of  my  companions  ;  I  was  well 
with  all  but  intimate  with  none.  And  the  poor  girl  had  no  sister, 
no  mother,  no  friend,  I  believe,  but  me.  I  think  it  was  her  desolate 
state,  in  its  contrast  to  my  own  happy  home,  and  ardent  hopes  and 
bright  prospects,  that  first  drew  me  to  her.  I  never  breathed  her 
name  to  a  human  being.  How  thankful  I  am  for  my  silence  !  Sweet 
saint  !  your  name  at  least  shall  never  be  exposed  to  the  deliberate 
malignity,  the  low  ribaldry,  that  have  so  relentlessly  assailed  my  own. 
If  ever  I  fulfil  the  hopes  I  once  cherished  ;  if  ever  I  outlive  my  foes 
and  silence  their  atrocious  slanders  ;  if  ever  the  time  should  come,  when 
your  memory  will  not  be  reviled  because  it  is  dear  to  me  and  sacred  ; 
when  none  are  left  to  hate  you  for  the  love  you  gave  me,  and  from 
those  who  will  only  have  known  you  as  its  most  sinless  martyr,  the 
tale  of  your  long  unrecorded  sufferings  may  win,  perhaps,  tears  softer 
and  less  bitter  than  my  own !  Never,  if  ever,  but  never  till  then, 
shall  that  tale  be  told. 

"The  last  time  we  met  was  at  evening,  a  little  before  sunset.  I 
had  walked  to  London  in  the  morning  to  buy  her  a  book  which 
she  had  wished  to  read.  I  had  not  written  my  name  on  the  title- 
page,  but  I  said,  half  jealously,  as  I  gave  it  to  her,  '  You  will  never 
lend  it  to  any  one — never  give  it  away  ? ' 

"  She  shook  her  head  and  smiled  sadly  ;  and  then  after  a  little 
pause,  she  said,  without  answering  my  question,  '  It  will  talk  to  me 
when  you  are  gone.'  So  then  for  the  first  time  we  began  to  speak 
gravely  of  the  future.     But  the  more  we  discussed  it  the  more  dis- 


quieted  we  became,    and  it  ended  with  the   old  phrase,  '  We   shall 
meet  to-morrow.' 

"  The  sun  had  set  and  it  was  already  dark.  I  could  scarcely  dis- 
tinguish her  features  as  I  turned  to  depart.  But  when  I  had  left  the 
spot  some  little  way  behind  me,  looking  back  to  it  I  could  see  that 
she  was  still  standing  there,  so  I  turned  and  rejoined  her.  She  was 
weeping.  Yet  she  had  then  no  knowledge  of  what  was  to  happen, 
and  she  could  not  say  why  she  wept.  I  was  unable  to  comfort  her, 
for  I  shared  (though  in  a  less  degree)  her  own  forebodings.  But  I 
covered  her  hands  with  my  tears  and  kisses,  till  at  last  she  drew 
them  away  from  my  grasp,  placed  them  on  my  head  as  I  half  knelt 
before  her,  said  in  half-choked  accents,  '  God  bless  you  !  '  and 
hurried  away. 

"  It  was  my  turn  then  to  linger  on  the  spot.  I  cried  out,  '  To- 
morrow, to-morrow,  we  shall  meet  as  before  ! '  My  voice  came  back 
to  me  without  an  answer,  and  we  never  met  again.  Never,  never ! 
The  next  day  she  came  not,  nor  the  next ;  then  I  learned  that  she 
was  gone.  What  had  happened  I  cannot  relate.  Some  months 
afterwards  there  came  a  letter — not  from  her.  She  was  married. 
She  whose  heart,  whose  soul,  whose  every  thought  and  feeling,  all 
were  mine  to  the  last — she  who  never  spared  even  a  dream  to 
another — lost,  lost  to  me  for  ever  ! " 

"  It  does  not  seem  to  have  occurred  to  my  father,"  says  the  bio- 
grapher, "  either  at  the  time  or  afterwards,  that  the  poor  girl's  dejection 
throughout  the  final  meeting  was  caused  by  something  much  stronger 
than  presentiment.  The  evasive  reply  to  the  request  that  she  would 
never  lend  the  book  he  gave  her  (a  request  which  in  her  altered 
circumstances  she  might  have  no  power  to  fulfil),  her  lingering  to 
weep  on  the  spot  where  they  had  parted,  and  the  sudden  spasmodic 
effort  with  which  she  tore  herself  away  from  her  lover's  ebullitions  of 
feeling — all  indicate  plainly  that  she  was  consciously  bidding  him  a 
last  farewell.  Their  interviews  had  probably  become  known  to  the 
father,  and  he  must  have  peremptorily  interfered  to  put  an  end  to 
an  apparently  hopeless  attachment.  The  sequel  is  told  in  outline. 
She  was  forced  into  a  marriage  against  which  her  heart  protested. 
For  three  years  she  strove  to  smother  the  love  which  consumed  her ; 
and  when  she  sank  under  the  conflict,  and  death  was  about  to  release 
her  from  the  obligations  of  marriage  and  life  itself,  she  wrote  a  letter 


to  my  father  with  her  dying  hand  informing  him  of  the  suffering 
through  which  she  had  passed,  and  of  her  unconquerable  devotion  to 
him,  intimating  a  wish  that  he  should  visit  her  grave."  Of  his 
pilgrimage  to  that  spot  (somewhere  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Ulls- 
water)  in  the  summer  of  1824,  the  great  idealist  has  left  an  autobio- 
graphical note,  from  which  the  following  is  abstracted  : — ■ 

"  I  had  one  object  in  this  tour  far  beyond  any  thought  of  pleasure 
and  adventure.  There  was  a  spot  amidst  these  districts  which  I  had 
long  yearned  to  visit,  with  such  devout  and  holy  passion  as  may 
draw  the  Arab  to  the  tomb  of  the  Prophet ;  a  spot  in  which  that 
wild  and  sorrowful  romance  of  my  boyhood  which  had  so  influenced 
my  youth  lay  buried  for  evermore.  And  until  I  had  knelt  alone 
and  at  night,  beneath  the  stars  at  that  shrine,  I  felt  that  my  life  could 
never  be  exorcised  from  the  ghost  that  haunted  it — that  my  heart 
could  never  again  admit  the  love  of  woman,  nor  my  mind  calmly 
participate  in  the  active  objects  of  men.  I  performed  that  pilgrim- 
age :  what  I  suffered  in  one  long  solitary  night  I  will  not  say.  At 
dawn  I  turned  from  the  place  as  if  rebaptised  or  reborn.  I  recovered 
the  healthful  tone  of  my  mind  ;  and  the .  stage  of  experience  and 
feeling  through  which  my  young  life  had  passed  contributed  largely 
to  render  me  whatever  I  have  since  become." 

There  is  a  fervid  Byronic  tone  and  feeling  about  this  story  which 
finds  expression  also  in  his  poem  of  "  The  Tale  of  a  Dreamer."  It 
may  seem  to  some  minds,  who  lack  the  poetic  instinct,  unreal  or 
at  least  exaggerated  ;  they  can  only  realise  in  thought  their  own 
experience,  and  as  such  an  episode  of  simple  innocent  love  may  never 
have  occurred  to  them,  they  may  be  disposed  to  doubt  its  ever  having 
happened  to  any  one  else.  There  are  others  who  may  read  these 
pages  who  will  not  only  believe  this  charming  narration,  but  can, 
looking  back  through  the  vista  of  years,  find  in  their  own  lives  a 
similar,  though  not  perhaps  so  striking,  an  incident  of  pure  unalloyed 
love  which  has  left  its  effect,  and  for  good,  in  after  years  when  the 
tempters  to  sensuality  and  evil  encompassed  them  more  closely. 

At  any  rate,  as  the  author  of  the  "  Life  and  Letters  of  Lord  Lyt- 
ton  "  has  said,  "  out  of  that  grave  of  buried  hopes  sprang  a  second 
life,  partaking  to  the  last  of  the  source  to  which  it  owed  its  being,  so 
when  we  turn  from  the  love  story  in  the  early  poem  to  the  last  of  its 
author's  finished  works,  we  find  in   '  Kenelm  Chillingly '   the  same 


incidents  and  emotions,  producing  the  same  effects  and  culminating 
in  the  same  elevating  aims.  The  poem  was  composed  within  the 
opening  gates  of  life  ;  the  prose  romance  under  the  hovering  shadow 
of  death."  "Viola  is  the  protoype  of  Lity.  Her  epitaph  was  written 
not  in  the  summer  of  1824,  but  in  the  winter  of  1873."  That 
epitaph  may  be  epitomized  into  : — 

l<  I  have  known  love,  I  have  known  sorrow. 
The  dawn  of  that  love  was  when  standing 
On  the  green  banks  that  shade  Brent's  humble  flood, 
Musing  o'er  pleasures  past  and  scenes  to  be." 

The  biographer  describes  the  effect  upon  his  father  of  his  reading 
the  manuscript  of  "  Kenelm  "  to  his  wife  and  himself.  It  was  New 
Year's  Eve — the  eve  of  the  year  of  his  father's  death — "  on  which 
he  finished  the  chapter  describing  Kenelm's  sufferings  above  the 
grave  of  '  Lily.'  He  was  profoundly  dejected,  listless,  broken,  and  in 
his  face  there  was  the  worn  look  of  a  man  who  had  just  passed  through 
the  last  paroxysm  of  a  passionate  grief.  We  did  not  then  know  to 
what  the  incidents  referred,  and  we  wondered  that  the  creations  of 
his  fancy  should  exercise  such  power  over  him.  They  were  not  crea- 
tions of  fancy,  but  the  memories  of  fifty  years  past." 

The  banks  of  the  Brent,  near  Perivale,  forms  the  scene  of  one  of 
the  prettiest  pictures  in  "  My  Novel,"  wherein  frequent  reference  is 
made  to  it.  It  is  when  "  Leonard  and  Helen,  strolling  forth  from 
Ealing,  towards  the  cool  of  the  sunset,  passed  the  grounds  that  once 
belonged  to  the  Duke  of  Kent,  on  Castlebar  Hill,  as  they  wandered 
down  to  the  Brent ;  there  they  sit,  under  the  shade  of  a  pollard  tree 
that  overhung  the  winding  brook.  He  flung  off  his  hat,  tossed  back 
his  rich  curls,  and  sprinkled  his  brow  from  the  stream  that  eddied 
round  the  roots  of  the  tree  that  bulged  out  bold  and  gnarled  from 
the  bank,  and  delved  into  the  depths  below.  Helen  quietly  obeyed 
him,  and  nestled  close  to  his  side." 

Amidst  the  lights  and  shadows  of  this  mysterious  life,  such  peace- 
ful surroundings  as  the  valley  of  the  Brent  are  necessary  at  times  to 
renew  our  conceptions  of  peace,  absolute  innocence  and  purity,  "  To 
walk  with  the  breeze  upon  one's  brow  (as  Gasparin  has  said),  to 
trample  the  level  grass  exuberant  with  freshness,  to  climb  upon  the 
mountains  ;  to  follow  through  the  meadows  some  thread  of  water 
gliding  under  rushes  and  water  plants — I  give  you  my  word  for  it 


there  is  happiness  in  this.  At  this  contact  with  healthy  and  natural 
things,  the  follies  of  the  world  drop  off  as  drop  the  dead  leaves  when 
the  spring  sap  rises  and  the  young  leaves  put  forth.  The  pangs  of 
the  heart  lose  their  vehemence  ;  the  great  blue  sky  which  reflects 
itself  in  the  soul,  gives  it  its  own  peace ;  the  Divine  goodness,  pity 
and  power  wrap  us  round  ;  it  is  a  halt,  as  it  were,  upon  the  threshold 
of  Paradise." 

Such  thoughts  as  these  must  have  animated  and  freshened  the 
fallen  soul  of  John  Burley,  the  wild  literary  Bohemian  whom  the 
author  of  "  My  Novel  "  has  described  as  returning  periodically  to  the 
banks  of  the  Brent.  There  he  fished  for  "  the  one-eyed  perch,"  an 
allegory,  in  which  is  covertly  contained  the  story  of  his  wasted  life 
and  its  cause. 

"  But  it  is  that  perch  ;  for,  harkye,  sir,  there  is  only  one  perch  in 
the  old  brook.  All  the  years  I  have  fished  here  I  have  never  caught 
another  perch,  and  this  solitary  inmate  of  the  watery  element  I  know 
by  sight  better  than  I  knew  my  lost  father.  For  each  time  that  I 
have  raised  it  out  of  the  water  its  profile  has  been  turned  towards  me, 
and  I  have  seen  with  a  shudder  that  it  had.  only  one  eye.  It  is  a 
mysterious  and  most  diabolical  phenomenon,  that  perch.  It  has  been 
the  ruin  of  my  prospects  in  life." 

Who  does  not  feel  some  pity  for  John  Burley  when  he  retired  from 
the  "  moil  and  strife  "  of  his  ordinary  life  to  Pittshanger  Farm,  which 
is  just  outside  the  boundary  of  the  parish  of  Perivale,  to  recruit  his 
moral  strength  and  health  in  the  peace  and  seclusion  of  the  Brent 
valley  ?  The  character  is  painted  by  the  idealist,  but  it  is  drawn 
from  life,  and  we  may  well  believe  that  the  author  intended  to  show 
that  the  good  that  was  in  John  Burley  was  in  part  preserved  by  his 
wanderings  there. 

Was  it  not  in  the  same  neighbourhood,  too,  that  Thomas  Edwards, 
the  "  ingenious  author  "  of  the  "  Canons  of  Criticism,"  dwelt  ?  The 
author  of  that  work,  famous  in  its  day,  spent  much  of  his  early  life 
at  Pittshanger  Farm  ere  he  removed  to  an  estate  he  purchased  in 
Buckinghamshire.  Charles  Dibden  wrote  some  of  his  best  songs  at 
his  house  in  Hanger  Lane  overlooking  Perivale.  Could  they  live  so 
near  and  not  enjoy  the  walks  along  the  Brent  valley  ? 

Among  the  men  of  note  who  received   part   of  their  education  at 



the  famous  school  kept  by  the  Rev.   Dr.    Nicholas,    called  "  Ealing 

Great  School,"  now  carried  on  by  the  Rev.  John  Chapman,  were  Sir 

Henry  Rawlinson,  Bishop  Selwyn,  Sir  Henry  Lawrence,  and  his  brother 

Lord  Lawrence,  Charles  Knight,  W.  M.  Thackeray,  Cardinal  Newman, 

and  his  brother,  Professor  Francis  William  Newman,  Richard  West- 

macott,  the  eminent  sculptor,  and  Frederick  Thesiger,  afterwards  Lord 

Chancellor  (Chelmsford).     We  may  be  very  sure  they  knew  well  the 

little    church,  hamlet,   and   fields  along  the  river  at  Perivale  in  the 

course  of  their  rambles  when  out  of  school  ;  the  face  of  that  country 

is  nearly  unaltered,  the  old  trees  are  still  there,  and  the  little  stream 

flows  on  with   the  same  murmurous  melody  "  to  join  the  brimming 

river"  ;  there  are  the  same  sounds  and  scenes  as  when  these  eminent 

men,  so  distinguished  afterwards  in  their  several  careers,  wandered  there 

in  the  freshness  of  youth.      Fancy  part  of  the  boyhood  of  the  Oriental 

scholar  [the  translator  of  the  until  then  unread  cuneiform  inscriptions 

of  ancient  Nineveh],  the  pious  bishop,  the  great  soldier,  and  eminent 

statesman,  the  amiable  and  learned  advocate  of  the  old  idea  of  a  "via 

media  "  in  the  Church,  the  great  humourist  and  author  of  "  Vanity 

Fair,"   and  the  publisher  who  earned  the  title  of  "Good  Knight" — 

passed  amid  these    scenes !     One  wonders  what    the   two   brothers 

Newman,  so  antagonistic  in  their  conclusions  in  after-life,  were  like 

when  they  rambled  about  the  north  of  Ealing  and  the  Brent  valley, 

and  particularly  the  boy  who  was  to  become  one  of  the  leaders  in  the 

great  "  Oxford  Movement,"  as  it  was  called,  in  conjunction  with  Keble 

and  Pusey,  a  movement  which  gave  birth  to  the  memorable  "  Tracts 

for  the  Times,"  and  resulted  in  the  publication  of  the  "  Apologia,"  a 

book  as  much  renowned  for  its  logical  power  as  is  its  author  for  his 

consistent  action  in  view  of  his  convictions.      It  was  he  who  wrote  the 

hymn,  "  Lead,  Kindly  Light,"  which  has  united  in  one  common  prayer 

the  followers  of  the  high  church,  low  church,  and  no  church  doctrines. 

Newman  mentions  his  old  school  at  Ealing  in  the  "  Apologia,"  and 

Charles  Knight  has  said,  in  "Passages  of  a  Working  Life" — "My  school 

life  was  real  happiness." 

There  was  another  boy  who  went  to  school  at  Ealing  who  is  equally 
well  known  for  his  honesty  as  for  his  ability.  Happily  his  path  has 
net  led  him  into  the  domain  of  theology,  but  into  the  laborious  but 
surer  region  of  science.  Professor  Thomas  Henry  Huxley,*  the  eminent 

.   *  Beeton's  "Modern  Men  and  Women." 


physiologist,  formerly  Hunterian  Professor  of  Comparative  Anatomy, 
&c,  in  the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  President  of  the  Royal  Society, 
and  the  author  of  several  important  works  which  have  added  much 
to  the  sum  of  human  knowledge,  was  born  at  Ealing,  and  went  to 
school  there,  and  we  may  be  certain  that  Peri  vale  and  the  Brent 
valley  were  the  scenes  of  many  of  his  boyish  rambles. 

The  boy  contains  within  him  that  which  makes  the  man,  and 
though  it  is  but  rarely  that  we  know  anything  reliable  of  the  early 
life  of  great  men,  still  the  scenes  of  their  school  days,  the  places  they 
frequented,  become  classic  ground.  The  recollection  of  the  scenes 
and  events  of  our  school  days  are  never  quite  forgotten.  The  river 
where  we  fished — whether  successfully  or  otherwise/the  nests  we  took, 
the  birds  we  saw  or  caught,  the  meadows  and  country  lanes  we  fre- 
quented, seem  often  so  indelibly  fixed  in  the  memory  that  a  sound, 
the  sight  of  something  seemingly  unassociated  with  them,  an  odour 
even,  is  sufficient  to  bring  the  pictures  back  vividly  to  the  mind. 
They  are  an  essential  part  of  the  long  gallery  of  the  past,  which,  as 
0.  Wendell  Holmes  says,  "  seems  to  need  but  one  short  process  and 
the  pictures  are  fixed  for  ever."  This  reverting  to  the  surroundings 
of  early  life  is  especially  the  case  in  old  age.  One  of  the  truest 
touches  of  Shakespeare  is  that  of  the  roystering  hero  of  many  unseemly 
bouts — the  poor  dying  Falstaff — "babbling  of  green  fields  "  and  play- 
ing with  the  flowers. 

Not  far  away,  for  it  is  little  more  than  half  an  hour's  walk,  is 
Fordhook,  Ealing,  the  house  where  the  great  novelist  and  accomplished 
author,  Henry  Fielding,  lived,  and  from  which  he  departed  for  Lisbon, 
broken  in  health  and  vainly  hoping  to  restore  it  in  a  warmer  climate. 
On  the  26th  June,  1754,  he  says  : — "  On  this  the  most  melancholy 
sun  I  had  ever  beheld  arose,  and  found  me  awake  at  my  house  at  Ford- 
hook.  By  the  light  of  this  sun  I  was  to  take  leave  of  some  of  those 
creatures  on  whom  I  doted,"  &c.  As  we  know,  he  never  returned 
to  those  he  loved  so  well,  and  the  walks  around  Fordhook,  and  among 
which  Perivale  would  surely  have  been  one,  knew  him  no  more. 

Fordhook  was  for  a  while  the  residence  of  Lady  Byron  and  the 
poet's  daughter.  "  Ada,  sole  daughter  of  my  house  and  heart,"  was 
married  there  to  Lord  King,  afterwards  the  Earl  of  Lovelace. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Staughton,  the  eminent  Nonconformist  divine,  the 
author  of  many  works  of  great  historical  interest,  &c,  lived  for  some 


years  in  Kent  Gardens,  overlooking  the  valley,  and  has  confessed  his 
fondness  for  rambles  in  Perivale. 

These  references  to  memorable  persons  who  have  lived  on  the 
borders  of  the  Brent  valley,  and  to  whom  its  attractions  must  have 
been  familiar,  could  be  much  amplified,  but  the  laws  regulating 
"  space"  forbid. 

There  is  one  allusion,  however,  which  ought  not  to  be  omitted, 
though  it  relates  to  a  person  well  known  in  his  time  in  quite  another 
way  from  any  of  those  mentioned.  Could  it  be  otherwise  than  that 
Perivale  and  the  Brent  valley  must  have  been  "  household  words  "  on 
the  lips  of  the  famous  old  sportsman,  Squire  Osbaldiston,  who  lived 
in  his  later  years  on  Castlebar  Hill,  and  kept  his  hunters  there  ?  His 
name  is  not  forgotten  now  among  old  sporting  men,  but  in  the  first 
half  of  this  century  W.  Harrison  Ainsworth  described  him  as  the 
"  Hercules  of  the  sporting  world,"  the  "  copper-bottomed  squire," 
who  in  horsemanship  and  endurance  he  compares  to  Dick  Turpin.* 

In  those  days  the  stag-hounds  often  met  in  or  near  the  parish  of 
Perivale  (they  may  be  seen  there,  but  more  rarely,  now),  and  there 
was  some  good  sport  to  be  had  in  the  valley  and  its  vicinity. 

It  is  about  forty  years  since  the  grand  old  sporting  squire  lived, 
whose  well-mounted,  handsome  form,  even  in  his  declining  years, 
might  have  been  seen  galloping  across  the  fields  ;  but  his  old  residence 
remains.  It  was  afterwards  occupied,  with  the  grounds  around  it,  by 
Thomas  Sparke  Parry  for  thirty  years,  and  known  as  Castlebar  Lodge. 

Since  that  tenancy  expired,  however,  has  come  what  Swinburne 
has  called,  "  the  fiery  feet  of  change,"  and  the  premises  have  become 
the  prey  of  the  builder,  and  "  genteel  villas "  have  partly  enclosed 
the  quaint,  old,  gabled  country-house  which  old  Squire  Osbaldiston 
called  his  own. 

Lastly,  but  the  most  exalted  in  rank,  and  associated  with  our  loyal 
sympathy,  for  he  was  the  father  of  our  Queen,  his  Royal  Highness 
the  Duke  of  Kent  lived  for  some  years  on  Castlebar  Hill  in  a  mansion 
which  overlooked  the  Brent  valley.  His  residence  occupied  the  site 
on  which  Kent  House  now  stands,  and  some  of  the  windows  com- 
manded beautiful  views  of  Perivale,  Harrow,  &c. 

This  chapter  will  not,  however,  be  complete  without  a  reference  to 

*  "Rookwood." 


Mr.  John  Farthing,  the  author  of  the  manuscript  notes,  poems,  and 
sketches  entitled  "  Pictures  of  Perivale,"  which  have  been  placed  in 
the  writer's  hands  by  his  widow,  a  niece  of  the  late  Sir  Henry  Smart, 
the  well-known  composer  of  music.  He  was  a  gentleman  of  good 
family,  settled  at  Milverton,  Somersetshire,  and  at  one  time  a  man  of 
comfortable  means.  He  came  to  reside  at  Perivale  in  1845,  occupy- 
ing the  old  Rectory,  which  he  partly  restored,  and  afterwards  Perivale 
Grange,  now  called  Grange  Farm.  At  that  time  the  church  was,  as 
he  says,  the  meanest  abode  in  the  parish,  with  a  congregation  of  six 
or  seven  persons  ;  in  fact,  it  was  the  general  opinion  among  the 
inhabitants  that  the  sooner  it  fell  down  the  better.  The  Rector  does 
not  appear  at  this  period  to  have  done  much  to  improve  it,  nor  his 
relative,  the  Lord  of  the  Manor.  Mr.  Farthing,  however,  did  all  he 
could  to  make  the  little  church  worthy  of  its  object.  The  complete 
seclusion  of  the  place  charmed  him.  Imbued  with  a  strong  love  of 
nature  and  deep  reverence  for  its  Almighty  Author,  he  and  his 
sisters,  who  resided  with  him  before  his  second  marriage,  appear  to 
have  found  amid  its  peaceful  scenes  a  welcome  retreat  from  the 
turmoil  and  anxieties  of  life. 

"Having,"  as  he  says,  "plenty  of  leisure,  I  amused  myself  from 
time  to  time  in  gleaning  from  old  authors  and  the  memories  of  aged 
persons  residing  in  the  vicinity  all  the  particulars  I  could  collect 
relating  to  the  j)iace." 

It  is  evident,  however,  he  had  not  access  to  many  old  books  and 
documents,  and  the  chief  merit  of  his  MSS.  relates  to  the  information 
current  at  his  time  and  then  passing  into  oblivion. 

If  his  knowledge  of  the  early  history  of  Perivale,  derived  from  old 
records,  was  small  as  compared  with  the  information  since  obtained, 
the  reader  of  his  notes  is  compensated  by  the  information  he  has 
given  us  in  other  respects,  and  also  by  the  vivid  and  beautiful  pic- 
tures he  has  drawn  showing  the  aspects  of  nature  about  Perivale. 
The  legends  have  no  doubt  been  amplified  from  some  ideas  or  tradi- 
tions then  extant,  but  they  are  expressed  in  a  pleasing  style.  His 
descriptions  of  Perivale,  and  of  the  natural  beauties  of  the  country 
about,  are  written  in  poetic  prose,  and  in  verse  parts  of  which  are 
on  a  level  with  our  minor  poets,  although  (particularly  the  religious 
poetry)  the  lyre  is  sometimes  touched  with  too  saddened  a  hand. 



We  may  fitly  conclude  these  "  Chronicles  of  Greenford   Parva  " 
with  some  of  his  verses. 

Quatrains  to  Peei-Vale. 

Sweet  Vale,  embosomed  in  these  gentle  hills  ! 
Ye  meads,  just  seen  thro'  yonder  opening 
glade  ! 
Ye  darksome  woods  !  ye  softly  murmuring 
Thou  church,  half  hid  beneath  yon  yew- 
trees'  shade ! — 

From  the  high  top  of   Horsington,    blest 
With  transport  do  I  hail  thy  peaceful 
charms ! 
'Mid  Nature's  beauties,  tranquil  and  serene, 
I  seek  a  refuge  from  the  world's  alarms. 

Oh,  bid    me    welcome,    then,    ye    verdant 
steeps  ! 
Oh,   bid   me    welcome    to   your   flowery 
brakes ! 
Lull'd  in  your  bosom,  every  sorrow  sleeps, 
And  only  mild  and  calm  reflection  wakes. 

Ambition's  vessel  on  this  peaceful  shore 
Here  rests  at  last,  her  anchor  calm  con- 
tent ; 

Here  Curiosity  is  seen  no  more, 

With  prying  eye  exploring  each  event. 

But  o'er  the  grassy  meads  the  Muses  rove, 
Or  by  yon  stream  that  thro'  the  valley 
strays ; 

While  Inspiration  whispers  thro'  the  grove, 
And  sportive  Fancy  in  the  foliage  plays. 

From  yonder  little  church  among  the  trees, 
Ne'er  does  the  piteous  noise  of  terror 

Nor  o'er  this  Tempe  does  the  balmy  breeze 
E'er  waft  discordant  notes  of  woe  around. 

On  the  tall  trees  the  thrush  her  wild  note 
While  the  brisk  grasshopper  still  chirps 
The  mower's   scythe   thro'    all    the  valley 
And  the  bees  hum  as  laden  home  they  go. 

In  the  soft  meads  the  lowing  herds  repose, 
The  gentle  sheep  browse  calmly  in  the 

While  in  the  copsy  dell  at  evening's  close 
The    loiterer   seeks    the    cool    delightful 

Oh  blest  is  he  who  from  his  heart  can  hail 
This  tranquil  scene,  here  study  Nature's 

As  Petrarch,  in  his  rock-encompass'd  vale, 
And  in  Scillontes'  shades  the  Grecian  sage. 

My  wants  are  few :    a  garden,  friend  and 
An  arbour  with  sweet  honeysuckles  drest, 
A  low-roof  d  cot  from  worldly  eyes  con- 
A  spot  where  two  united  hearts  may  rest. 

{Adapted  from  the  German  of  Von  Salis). 


Adeian,  67 

Advowson  of  Perivale,  earliest  mention  of,  26 

Value  of,  75 
JEveve,  8 

Alborowes,  W.,  Rector,  30,  51 
Alder,  88 

Aldermanbury  Conduit,  37 
Alston,  85 
Ansgot,  8 

Ansgar,  the  Haller,  7 
Ankerwyke,  the  Priory  of,  22 
Archery,  33,  82 
Arnold,  John,  85 
Arundel,  Lord,  30,  51 
Atlee,  119 

Avres,  Lawrence  de,  32 
Aynsworth,  Rector,  42,  52 
Azar,  8 

Baptisms  at  Perivale,  108 

Barrel  organ  and  music  at  Perivale,  120,  123 

Bartelot,  H.,  Rector,  39,  52 

Bartholomew,  88 

Bixter,  Richard,  50 

Beard,  Rector,  52,  54 

Beaumout  (note),  27,  30,  31,  35,  51 

Bede,  12 

Bedwell,  85 

Bell-Monte,  see  Beaumont 

Bellomont,  see  Beaumont 

Bell  of  Perivale  Church,  60 

Besse  Place,  53,  96 

Bible  first  placed  in  churches,  46 

Birds  of  the  Brent  Valley,  133-6 

Blaine,  69,  88 

Bohun,  16,  22,  23,  25,  38,  52,  58 

Bolas,  69 

Boteler,  Petrus  de,  26  (and  note) 

Borders  (note),  12 

Bovate  (note),  12 

Bowler,  Thos.,  96 

Bowles,  Rev.  W.  L.,  61 

Bradford,  burnt,  43 

Brent,  changes  in  the  channel  of  the,  56 

Brentford,  martyrs  at,  43 

Brentford,  battles  at,  50 

Bridger,  53 

Britton  quoted,  77 

Brown,  43,  45,  52,  85 

Browne,  44,  45,  53 

Brown's,  John,"  North-West  Passage,&c, "87 

Brownbill,  Rector,  83,  147 

Burials  at  Perivale,  108 

In  woollen,  enactments  concerning,  116 
Butlin,  88 
Butler's  "Hudibras,"  48,  49 

Cain,  Richard,  120,  123,  125 
Calyn,  Patricius,  Rector,  44,  52 
Camden's  "Britannia,"  20,  107 
Canons  of  St.  Paul's,  7,  57 
Carter,  J.,  Admiral,  85 
Carwarthen,  D.,  50 
Castle-bear  Common,  6 
Chancel  window,  old,  56 
Chaloner,'  88 
Chapman,  88 
Charlton,  35,  51 
Chaucer,  32 

Chinchgate,  J  ,  Rector,  36,  51 
"  Chronicles,  &c,  of  Middle  Ages,"  26 
Churchwardens,  74,  127,  128 
Churches,  number  of,  mentioned  in  Domes- 
day, 77 
Church  rates  at  Perivale,  127,  130 
Clerke,  82,  119 

"  Clerkenwell,  History  of  "  (note),  33,  37 
Cleveland,  Duchess  of,  quoted,  18,  23,  24,  27 
Cockett,  85 
Collet,  39,  40,  52,  88 
Collier,  88 
Colleton.  83,  84 
Collinson,  86 

Commissions  to  suppress  Popery,  45 
Common  or  Folksland,  13 
Condell,  68,  88 
Conduits,  benefactors  of,  37 
Congregations  at  Perivale,  73 
Coome,  W.,  Rector,  37,  52 
Coomes,  88 

Cooper,  Vicar  of  Ealing,  50 
Cornhill  or  Cornhull,  see  Perivale 
Corn  of  Perivale  highly  esteemed,  106 
Coston,  Simon,  51,  62,  101,  103,  105 



Cracknell,  88 

Croft,  53 

Cromwell.  55,  84,  114,  115 

Curates  at  Perivale,  118 

Daniel,  53 

Day,  69,  85 

Delpierre,  53 

Derivation  of  local  names,  34,  109 

Diana's  Temple  near  St.  Paul's,  7 

Dibdin,  145 

Dido,  12 

Domesdav  Book,  6,  8,  9,  12,  57,  77 

Doswell,  89 

Drayton's  "  Polyolbion,"  6,  107 

Ducat,  68,  88 

Dugdale  quoted,  22,  27,  30,  31 

Duncombe,  80 

Duprat,  87 

Durant,  88 

Durandus,  66 

Ealine's,  Eling's  or  Yillinge's  Haven,  111,  112 

Ealing  "ruinated,"  50 

Eastfield,  Sir  "William,  37,  52 

Eddy,  88 

Edgeworth,  85 

Edmundus,  Rector,  32,  51 

Edward  I.,  oath  of,  24 

Coin  found  at  Perivale,  25,  58 
Edwards,  Thomas,  145 
Elliott,  George  Augustus,  118 
Ely,  John,  Rector,  38,  52 
Ems,  R.,  85 

Epitaphs,  79,  80,  81,  82,  88,  89 
Erasmus,  40 
Excommunication  of  a  Lord  of  the  Manor,  1 8 

Farmhouses.  &c,  at  Perivale,  96,  112,  120 

Farnham,  Nicholas  de,  22 

Farnham  Royal  Church,  59 

Farthing,  John,  67,  68,  69,  70,  74,  80,  84,  91, 

93,  100,  122,  138,  149 
Feudal  system  (note),  10 
Fielding,  147 
Filby,  89 

First-fruits  Perivale  Church,  51,  52 
Fitzmaurice,  87 
Fitz  Piers,  20 
Fitzstephen,  14 
Fleet  marriages,  119 
Fletcher,  52,53,  117,  118 
Floods  at  Perivale,  75 
Folkyngham,  Manor  of,  30 
Font  at  Perivale  Church,  62,  129 
Forbes,  85 

Fortescue,  Sir  John,  33 
Forest  land  in  North  Middlesex,  14 

Foss's  "Tabulae  Curiales"  (note),  44 
Foxe's  "Acts  and  Monuments,"  40,  41,  44 
Frere,  87 
Froude  on  destruction   of   Church  property, 

Fuller,  119 

Gates,  80 

Geology  of  the  Brent  valley,  131 

Gerrart,  Sir  C,  53 

Gilbert,  Vicar  of  Ealing,  50 

Giles.  Rev.  Dr.,  85,  122,  147 

Gowlland,  88 

Gravale,  John  de,  Rector,  30,  51 

Greenhill,  83 

Greenford,  Greneford,  Parva,  5 

Magna,  11 

Near  Staines,  22 
"  Greyfriars  Chronicle,"  46 
Gurnel  (and  note),  54,  68 
Gyfford,  Jac,  Rector,  38,  52 

Haffettden.  88 

Haines'  "Monumental  Brasses,"  80 

Hallam  on  Socage,  13 

Halle,  37 

Harrison,  48,  52,  68,  69,  82,  118,  119 

Harrow,  36,  107,  110 

Hauberks,  Ric,  Rector,  30,  51 

Hawtayne,  88 

Helias,  "  The  Knight  of  the  Swan,"  23 

Helen's,  Saint,  Priory  of,  32 

Henry  VIII.,  40 

Henry,  88 

Heylyn,  46 

Higid  or  Hiwisc,  see  Hide 

Hide  as  a  measure  of  land,  12 

Hicks,  88 

Hind,  W.,  Rector,  51 

Hillingdon,  50 

Hobman,  Thos.,  48 

Hobman.  F.,  Rector,  48,  52 

Hodges,  88 

Hone's  "Table  Book,"  59 

Hood,  85 

Hooper,  Robt.,  Rector,  39,  52 

Hope,  Thos.,  124 

Hopkinson,  88 

Horsendon,  109,  110 

Horsington,  see  Horsendon 

Howard,  119 

Houndslow,  34 

Houses  in  Perivale,  108 

Hughes,  68,  69,  147 

Hunting  and  hawking,  36 

Huntingdon,  Henry  of  (notes),  18,  27 

Huxley,  Prof.  T.  H.,  146 



Idyl  of  the  Brent,  an,  139 

Jeeeam,  88 
Johnson,  85,  119 
Josling,  88 

Kelham  on  measurement  of  land,  12 
Keyte,  88 

Kingsbury,  Roman  remains  at,  76 
Knight,  Charles,  119,  146 
Knights'  fees  (note),  10,  35 

Lambaed,  Bic.,  Rector,  36,  51 

Lamb,  Charles,  on  a  sun-dial,  60 

Lane,  48,  49,  52,  78,  80 

Land,  increase  in  the  value  of,  at  Perivale,  76 

Value  in  Saxon  times,  8,  13 

Ancient  measures  of,  1 1 
Langton,  Walter  de,  23,  27,  58 
Lateward,  53,  79,  82,  85,  116,  118,  125,  147 
La-wing  of  Dogs,  34 
Lawrence,  Lord,  &c,  146 
Legend  of  "  The  White  Swan,"  23 

"  The  Maiden's  Tomb,"  84 

Perivale  Rectory,  92 

Perivale  Mill,  100 

Horsendon  Hill,  110 
Lepers'  Window,  70,  71 
Leprosy  in  England,  7 1 
Levingston,  John,  53 
Leuric,  8 
Lewin,  Earl,  8 
Lockwood,  53 
Lollardism,  36 
Lysons,  6,  22,  26,  56,  58,  65,  80,  83,  85,  107, 

Lytton,  Lord,  139—145 

Machyn,  Henry,  43,  45 

Magnavilla,  see  Mandeville 

Magna  Charta  (note),  13 

Maiden's  Tomb,  84 

Maidman,  J.,  Rector,  55,  117 

Mandeville,  6,  8,  10,  15,  18,  19,  21,  58 

Maneyard,  W.,  Rector,  52 

Manor  House  at  Perivale,  93 

Maplesdon,  48,  52 

Marshall,  T.,  Rector,  44,  52 

Marsack,  53 

Masters,  88 

Maude,  the  Empress,  10 

Marriages  at  Perivale,  119 

Metcalf,  "Knights  Banneret,"  &c.  (note),  44 

Middlesex  landowners  at  the  Conquest,  8 

Middleton,  J.,  38,  52 

Mihnan,  Dean,  46 

Mills,  Richard,  Rector,  147 

Millet,  47,  52,  73,  78,  79,  81,  119 

Minute  book  of  Perivale  Vestry,  126 

Morgan,  Henry,  53,  96 

Murray,  53,  96 

Mussendon,  J.,  Rector,  32,  51 

Mylett  brasses,; 78 

"  My  Novel  "  quoted,  144-5 

"  Myths  of  the  Middle  Ages,"  23 

Nelson's  "  Laws  of  England,"  7 

Newcourt,  5,  30,  42,  43,  49,  51,  56 

Newell,  Admiral,  85 

Newman,  Cardinal,  &c,  146 

Nicholas,  Rev.  Dr.,  &c,  68,  88,  89,  146 

Nisbett,  Sir  John,  85 

Nobull,  Hugo,  37,  52 

Norden,  5 

Northey,  88 

Nye,  Philip,  49 

Ode  to  Richard  Cain,  125 
Orientation  of  Perivale  Church,  69 
Osbaldiston,  Squire,  148 
Osmond,  Nic,  Rector,  47,  52 

Paddington,  water  tower  at,  37 

Pannage,  7 

Parish  Churches,  foundation  of,  77 

Parish  constable  at  Perivale,  126 

Paris,  Matthew,  16,  21 

Patten,  88 

Paul's,  Saint,  Canons  of,  7  (note,  57) 

Pearson,  W.,  Rector,  117 

Penn,  88 

Penfold,  96 

Percival,  John,  Sheriff,  39 

Peri-vale,  Quatrains  to,  150 

Perivale  Church,  date  of,  20,  57 

Orientation  of,  58 

Windows  in,  67,  68,  70,  73 

Reredos,  &c,  67 

Sacramental  plate,  73 

Patron  saint,  unknown,  56 

Architecture  of,  57,  58,  61,  65 

Holy  water  stoup,   62 

Causes  of  its  neglect  and  injury,  59,  63 

Value  of  living,  75 

Register,  119 

Divine  service  at,  69,  72 
Perivale  rural  sports,  99 

Parish,  population  of,  108 
Pinkerton,  85 
Poor  law,     administration    of,    at    Perivale 

126,  128 
Population  of  Perivale,   108 
Porter,  88 

Purevale,  see  Perivale 
Pyerson,  J.,  Rector,  52 





Ramsey  Abbey,   plundered  by  a  Lord  of  the 

Manor  of  Perivale,  17 
Randall,  88 

Rawlinson,  Sir  Henry,  146 
Rayne,  88 

Read,  E.,  Rector,  48,  52 
Rectors  of  Perivale,  51,  117 

Buried  in  Perivale,  117 
Rectory  at  Perivale,  90 
Reformation,  germs  of  the,  31 
Register,  113,  117 
Rigby,  88 
Roberts,  88 
Rocque's  Survey,  6,  93 
Roman  remains  near  Perivale,  76 
Roses,  War  of,  39 
Rush  bearing,  137 
Rysdale,  Rector,  44,  52 

Sacramental  plate,  73 
Saulez,  88 

Sawtre,  John,  burnt,  36 
"  Saxon  Chronicle,"  9 

Fibulae,  11 

Churches  in  England,  76 
Saxons,   West,    interment   of  warriors  near 

Perivale,  11 
Say,  Beatrix  de,  20,  21 
Schar  or  Scat  Penny,  14 
Schrieber,  John,  53 
Scott,  Sir  Walter,  9 
Seaxe,  East,  11 
Segrave,  J.,  Rector,  36,  51 
Selwyn,  Bishop,  146 
Service,  Divine,  at  Perivale,  72,  73 
Shelbury,  47,  79 
Shury,  R.,  Rector,  85,  147 
Slade,  88 
Smart,  88 
Smith,  88 
Socage,  13 

Sokemen  or  Socmen,  13 
Southwell,  42,  43,  65 
Stanton,  J.,  85 
Staughton,  Rev.  Dr.,  147 
Stephanides,  see  Fitzstephen,  14 
Stickleton,  Manor  of,  26 
Stowe,  21,  30,  37,  38,  45 
Street,  88 

Sudbury,  Simon  de,  31 
Sunset  at  Perivale,  138 
Sutton,  Colonel,  85 
Sweitzer,  88 
Swift,  Dean,  75 

"  Table  Book,"  Hone's,  137 

Taylor,  J.,  Roctor,  39,  52 

Temple  Church,  17 

Thackeray,  146 

Thesiger,  Sir  Frederick,  146 

Thornbury,  "Old  and  New  London,"  39 

Thomson,  Anthony  Todd,  Dr.,  85 

Tryers,  Committee  of,  48' 

Tuckfield,  85 

Tuf  ton,  Sir  John,  45 

Turner,  88 

Twyford,  7,  57,  75 

Vestries  at  Perivale,  74,  125 
Vere,  Henry  de,  20 
Verry,  S.,  116,  117 
Veysey,  Thos.,  Rector,  44,  52 
Virgate  (note),  12 

Walden,  Register  of,  18 

Walford,  Edward,  "  Greater  London,"  50 

Ward,  Pet.,  Rector,  36,  51 

Webster,  E.,  88 

Westmacott,  68,  146 

Westminster  Abbey,  11,  15 

Wetherall,  87 

White  Swan,  Legend  of  the,  23 

Whittington,  Sir  Richard,  37 

Wickliffe,  32 

Wildman,  James,  82 

Willey,  57,  68,  88 

William  the  Conqueror,  saying  of,  15 

Wilson,  Governor  of  S.  Carolina,  85 

Wilson,  Dr.,  86 

Windmill  at  Perivale,  100 

Winter,  88 

Wyatt,  H.,  Rector,  48,  49,  52,  83 

Wykes,  119 

Yeoman,  derivation  of ,  83 
Tews  in  churchyards,  83 
Yillinge  (Ealing),  36,  37  (note) 

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